Charisma and Vision

Charisma and vision are important characteristics of leaders such as Justin Trudeau and Steve Jobs. Both are intensely emotional.

Fear of Embarrassment, and Other Nested Emotions

People experience nested emotions such as hope for forgiveness, love of honor, longing for love, fear of fear itself, lust for glory, and dread of shame.

How to Put Yourself in Someone Else’s Shoes

You can empathize with people in three ways: recognizing their situations as analogous to your own, perceiving their pain or emotions using mirror neurons, or simulating their experiences using unconscious embodied rules.

Why are Some People Eager to Fight for the Islamic State?

Foreigners and locals decide to go to fight with the Islamic State because it provides a good fit with their fundamental values and beliefs – emotional coherence. A value map shows some of the emotional structure of the Islamic State ideology.

Emotional Capital

Emotional capital is the set of resources that enable people to use emotions effectively in their lives. It includes self-esteem, self-regulation, emotional energy, attachment, resilience, agreeableness, and optimism.

What Is Love?

The best way to state the nature of love is to identify standard examples, typical features, and explanatory roles. Love is an emotion consisting of patterns of neural firing that represent a lover, a loved one, intense feelings, and caring behavior, all tied to chemical changes in the brain.

Why Do People Like Sad Songs?

The emotional impact of music does not come from imparting particular emotions, but rather from being emotionally engaging in general. So it does not matter whether a song is happy or sad, only whether it has an emotional impact on the listeners.

Cinderella and the Wrongdoing Schema for Moral Thinking

The Cinderella story illustrates a common pattern in which a victim experiences harm because of bad actions performed by a bad agent with bad intentions. I call this pattern the wrongdoing schema, and outline how it explains important aspects of moral cognition.

Does the Heart Want What It Wants?

It is only partly true that the heart wants what the heart wants, because minds have some limited capacity for cognitive reappraisal that contributes to emotional change.

Is Your Cell Phone Conscious? On Information Integration

The theory that consciousness is just information integration suffers from vagueness, mathematical problems, naïve claims about self-evidence, and misattribution of consciousness to entities such as smartphones.So it is less plausible than alternate theories that explain consciousness as the result of brain mechanisms.

The Hard Problem of Life

Life and consciousness are problems allegedly so hard that no amount of scientific progress can ever solve them.

Are People Naturally Scientific?

Some social and developmental psychologists have claimed that people—even children—naturally think like scientists. I find this claim implausible because: people are naturally religious rather than scientific; everyday thinking frequently deviates from scientific reasoning; and science is a relatively recent cultural development.

Should People Fear Artificial Intelligence?

Once superintelligence comes about because computers acquire and surpass human-level intelligence, it may turn out to have interests and actions that run counter to those of humans, to our detriment and possibly even our demise. But despite advances in AI, computers are still very limited compared to humans.

Explaining Social Change

A new approach to explaining social change needs to combine recent theories about the brain processes responsible for cognition and emotion with understanding of social communication that is both verbal and non-verbal.

Consciousness Is a Brain Process

Debate continues on whether consciousness operates in brains, in non-material souls, or in anything capable of integrating information. Rapid progress is being made on the neural mechanisms responsible for consciousness.

Is Human Thinking Optimal?

Philosophy and psychology should abandon assumptions that human minds are at all optimal or rational, and instead concentrate on identifying the neural mechanisms that make us good at but far from perfect for remembering, forming beliefs, making decisions, using language, and pursuing happiness.

How to Analyze Concepts: What Is Intelligence?

Complex concepts like intelligence are rarely amenable to strict definitions. But they can be informatively characterized by specifying exemplars (standard examples), typical features, and explanations.

Hard Decisions

Understanding decision making as a psychological process of emotional coherence provides a better explanation of why people often get so paralyzed by crucial decisions, which is mysterious on the economic model of maximizing expected utility.

Believing What Scares You

Fear-driven inference occurs when people acquire beliefs with little evidence because the beliefs scare them. David Nussbaum and I propose that the mechanism underlying fear-driven inference is gut overreaction, which involves an ongoing feedback loop between judgment and emotional response.

What Is the Self?

Your self is not an immortal soul or a mere fiction, but a system of social, psychological, neural, and molecular mechanisms.

This Is Your Brain on Empathy

Empathic understanding of other people's emotions can result from an automatic mode based on mirror neurons and emotional contagion by facial and bodily mimicry, and also from a deliberate mode based on verbal descriptions and analogical reasoning.

What Is Free Will?

Human actions that result from complex neural processes of intention, emotion, and consciousness are at least freeish, even if they are not produced by the traditional kind of free will.

How Accurate Are People’s Beliefs About Psychology?

Because people are largely ignorant about how their minds work, psychology and philosophy of mind need to go beyond introspection, intuitions, thought experiments, and surveys.

Can a Thermostat Have Beliefs?

New thermostats are capable of sophisticated forms of inference, so it is worth considering whether they have beliefs.

Is Consciousness a Property of Everything in the Universe?

Panpsychism claims that consciousness belongs to everything, not just people, but it is implausible for many reasons. Consciousness is an emergent property of brains resulting from several neural mechanisms.

Why Good Intentions Often Fail

Why is there often a gap between the intentions of people like Rob Ford and their actions? My radical view, based on a new model of how intentions in the brain lead to action, is that there is no free will because there is no will.

How to Write Productively

Tips for writing productively include: conform to your body rhythms, have a daily quota, produce outlines, expect multiple drafts, read just in time, know your audience, revise well, and backup your work.

The Origins of Morality

The origins of morality lie in a combination of brain and social processes that support caring, understanding, and social learning.

The Extended Breath

The extended mind hypothesis claims that it is a mistake to identify thinking with brain processes. Analogously, we argue that breathing should not be identified with lung processes.

Emergence in Social Groups and in Brains

A system such as the current U. S. Congress is demergent rather than emergent in that the interactions of parts prevent the whole from having valuable properties.