The pathway to healing and recovery is often a journey that can progress over multiple years. Addiction not only involves the individual suffering from the substance use disorder, but their partner, their family, and their friends as well. When supporting a partner who is in active addiction to alcohol or other drugs, it’s critically important that you also take care of your well-being.
It is a balancing act of offering support to your partner in navigating the treatment and recovery options available, while at the same time, not losing sight of what you need yourself to be happy and healthy.
It is important to set ground rules for your relationship, especially when you believe your partner may be developing or actively suffering from a substance use disorder. Boundaries are clearly outlined expectations or rules set forth so that both partners know what behaviors are acceptable. This avoids the potential for unwittingly positively reinforcing substance use, and can help to avoid feeling constantly frustrated or angry with your significant other’s behavior, angry at being taken advantage of financially, manipulated emotionally, or helpless in the face of the substance use disorder.
Setting boundaries protects your personal health and well-being, is more likely to help your addicted loved one, and help ensure that you’ll be satisfied with the relationship as well.
Some examples of common boundaries that can be agreed upon up front through discussion with your addicted partner include:
“Put your own mask on first before helping others” You won’t be able to help your partner if you can’t help yourself. Try to maintain your own self-care routines as much as possible. This will build resiliency.
An important first step in helping your partner is understanding their substance use. Educate yourself on substance use disorders and available resources. By doing this, you are not only empowering yourself to make well-informed decisions, but you are also ready and equipped with information when your partner decides they are ready to seek help.
SOME STARTER RESEARCH POINTS INCLUDE:
With the shame and stigma that goes along with alcohol or other drug addiction, it is easy for affected loved-ones to become increasingly secretive and isolated. Seek help and outside advice early and often. Talk to friends, people and family members in recovery who have the lived experience of what you’re experiencing, and seek the help of addiction specialists. When asking for and seeking help, there are several different options available:
Comorbidity is the occurrence of two or more disorders or illnesses in the same person. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the likelihood of a mental illness diagnosis doubles for individuals suffering from a substance use disorder. Your partner may be more willing to talk about their depression or anxiety with you or a professional than talk directly about their substance use. This can be a way for them to get some kind of help that can ultimately lead to positive changes in their alcohol/drug use.
Substance use disorders affect biological functioning, dominating the brain’s reward system, affecting emotional regulation, motivation, impulse control, and pleasure-seeking behaviors. The brain and body become dependent on an outside substance to create feelings of happiness and well-being, and at advanced stages of the disease, to simply maintain the ability to function. Compulsive behaviors and the need for rapid reward are likely to surface and intensify as the substance use disorder progresses. Even when an individual detoxifies from a substance, the reward system in the brain can remain changed for a long period of time.
New research is suggesting that due to these changes in the brain, immediate rewards may be a more effective means by which to promote early recovery and your partner’s sobriety. Instead of planning long-term incentives such as a vacation the following year, try planning small immediate rewards each day, and around upcoming weekends, for any positive changes (e.g., keeping to a boundary [see above], talking openly about problems, attending a therapy session etc.). The immediacy and consistency of positive rewards for any movement in a healthy direction has been shown to shape behavior in addictive individuals that can increase the odds of recovery.
One approach is confronting the substance use directly with an intervention aimed at compelling your partner to seek treatment and services. Family and friends gather to communicate the impact of the substance use on the relationship and clarify and agree upon behavioral boundaries (see above), and urge entry into treatment or other recovery support services, and outline consequences and contingencies for continued substance use.
An alternative approach is formally known as the CRAFT approach and involves counseling that systematically teaches you to encourage and motivate your partner to seek out treatment and services on their own volition. Through this approach, you are asked to take care of yourself first, work to create an environment conducive to recovery void of triggers and cues, and prepare a plan for treatment in anticipation of your partner's acceptance and desire for treatment from their addiction.
Sometimes no matter what you do to support your partner, their substance use has progressed to the point where they are unable to make rational decisions to cease their substance use. It may be necessary to seek legal assistance to save your love-ones life. Partners can look into civil commitment laws (e.g. sectioning) within their state, to explore involuntarily sending your partner to treatment. If you feel like you may be in danger of harm, or feel that your relationship is no longer healthy, it may be necessary to seek an end to the relationship.
Contributions by Alexandra Plante