Counselling in South Perth, WA

Photo of Robert Jeffery Marano, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Robert Jeffery Marano
Counsellor, PhD, ACA-L1
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
Life is full of adversity. This can sometimes leave us feeling anxious, lost, alone and unsure of how to move forward. These feelings can be overwhelming and cause us to turn inward. However, this only further compounds the problem.
Life is full of adversity. This can sometimes leave us feeling anxious, lost, alone and unsure of how to move forward. These feelings can be overwhelming and cause us to turn inward. However, this only further compounds the problem.
(08) 7079 4229 View (08) 7079 4229
Photo of Michael Bazeley, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Michael Bazeley
Counsellor, ACA-L1
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
Change is a universal, life constant - and yet it so often resisted. It seems to happen without our consent, against our will - and too often without active measures to make the most of it. Working compassionately with people in all the throes of change, in a counselling, educational and facilitative capacity, I see the vast difference in process and outcome between those who lean into and own the experience, as opposed to those who resist or dread change and see themselves as victims of something beyond their influence or control - It's no mystery which type adapts better. So why not choose to thrive amid change?
Change is a universal, life constant - and yet it so often resisted. It seems to happen without our consent, against our will - and too often without active measures to make the most of it. Working compassionately with people in all the throes of change, in a counselling, educational and facilitative capacity, I see the vast difference in process and outcome between those who lean into and own the experience, as opposed to those who resist or dread change and see themselves as victims of something beyond their influence or control - It's no mystery which type adapts better. So why not choose to thrive amid change?
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Photo of Raquel Zamora Martinez, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Raquel Zamora Martinez
Counsellor, MC, PACFA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
South Perth, WA 6151
Hello! I’m Raquel Zamora Martinez, and my passion lies in helping families find their way through life’s challenges. As a dedicated counsellor at Discovery Family Therapy, I specialize in three crucial areas: Play Therapy, Children's counselling, Family Counselling and Teen Counselling.
Hello! I’m Raquel Zamora Martinez, and my passion lies in helping families find their way through life’s challenges. As a dedicated counsellor at Discovery Family Therapy, I specialize in three crucial areas: Play Therapy, Children's counselling, Family Counselling and Teen Counselling.
(08) 6493 7340 View (08) 6493 7340
Photo of Rachel Webb, Psychologist in South Perth, WA
Rachel Webb
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
Rachel is a empathic practitioner who takes a person-first approach. She creates a non-judgemental and supportive therapy relationship to assist her clients in understanding themselves and achieving their therapy goals. Rachel has an interest inworking with those who have faced adversity or trauma. As such, Rachel has psychological experience in the NDIS, and has volunteered with the Centre for Asylum Seekers, Refugees, and Detainees.
Rachel is a empathic practitioner who takes a person-first approach. She creates a non-judgemental and supportive therapy relationship to assist her clients in understanding themselves and achieving their therapy goals. Rachel has an interest inworking with those who have faced adversity or trauma. As such, Rachel has psychological experience in the NDIS, and has volunteered with the Centre for Asylum Seekers, Refugees, and Detainees.
(08) 6361 3300 View (08) 6361 3300
Photo of Simon Lawrance, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Simon Lawrance
Counsellor, ACA-L1
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
South Perth, WA 6151
I am a provisional counsellor at Discovery Family Therapy, where I work with children, young people, and families. My expertise lies in addressing family conflict, gender and body image, loss, anxiety, and trauma using positive behavioral and cognitive interventions.
I am a provisional counsellor at Discovery Family Therapy, where I work with children, young people, and families. My expertise lies in addressing family conflict, gender and body image, loss, anxiety, and trauma using positive behavioral and cognitive interventions.
(08) 6361 3228 View (08) 6361 3228
Photo of Ella Dilber, Psychologist in South Perth, WA
Ella Dilber
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
My passion lies in guiding people through life's challenges. Navigating school, work, relationships, and the intricate tapestry of life can be tough. I believe in a holistic approach, understanding the full scope of what shapes you. I'm not the expert on your life – my mission is to empower you to lead your journey, making lasting, positive changes. Within the safe space I offer, judgment has no place, replaced by compassion and understanding. Know that you're never alone, even in the most isolating moments.
My passion lies in guiding people through life's challenges. Navigating school, work, relationships, and the intricate tapestry of life can be tough. I believe in a holistic approach, understanding the full scope of what shapes you. I'm not the expert on your life – my mission is to empower you to lead your journey, making lasting, positive changes. Within the safe space I offer, judgment has no place, replaced by compassion and understanding. Know that you're never alone, even in the most isolating moments.
(08) 6388 9856 View (08) 6388 9856
Photo of Gome Simfukwe, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Gome Simfukwe
Counsellor, MA, ACA-L4
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
If you're looking for someone who understands what it's like to live in a foreign land and have to navigate multiple cultures, then I may just be that perfect fit for you. As a migrant living in Australia, I am aware of the challenges associated with cross cultural relationships at various levels including personal, work, education etc. I am professionally trained in counselling with a specific interest in trauma and its impacts on mental health.
If you're looking for someone who understands what it's like to live in a foreign land and have to navigate multiple cultures, then I may just be that perfect fit for you. As a migrant living in Australia, I am aware of the challenges associated with cross cultural relationships at various levels including personal, work, education etc. I am professionally trained in counselling with a specific interest in trauma and its impacts on mental health.
(08) 6336 9977 View (08) 6336 9977
Photo of Inter Wisdom, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Inter Wisdom
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
South Perth, WA 6151
Interwisdom Counselling and Wellness Services provide respectful tailored services, which include Somatic Movement Groups and Therapy, integrated Counselling, and Wellness Services. I have extensive experience working with individuals, families and groups in various community, clinical and wellness programs, throughout WA. I am passionate about supporting people to reconnect with their core strengths, and resources to address the issues that are holding them back from living life from their place of authenticity and purpose. My approach is to work with the client in practical and logical ways to find meaning and implement change.
Interwisdom Counselling and Wellness Services provide respectful tailored services, which include Somatic Movement Groups and Therapy, integrated Counselling, and Wellness Services. I have extensive experience working with individuals, families and groups in various community, clinical and wellness programs, throughout WA. I am passionate about supporting people to reconnect with their core strengths, and resources to address the issues that are holding them back from living life from their place of authenticity and purpose. My approach is to work with the client in practical and logical ways to find meaning and implement change.
(08) 6333 0743 View (08) 6333 0743
Photo of Tap In Counselling Service, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Tap In Counselling Service
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
“Stress, losses, and trauma create changes you don’t choose. Healing creates change you do choose” (adapted from Rosenthal). Dorte (Dee) at Tap In Counselling Service is a compassionate counsellor, whose broad experience strengthens her ability to adapt evidence-based approaches according to individual support and recovery needs. Dorte (Dee) supports adults, couples & adolescents to discover and tap into their resources, strengths, and supports that guide enhanced wellbeing, desired changes, and healing. Individuals with BUPA and Australian Regional Health Group (ARHG) private health cover may be eligible to claim session rebates.
“Stress, losses, and trauma create changes you don’t choose. Healing creates change you do choose” (adapted from Rosenthal). Dorte (Dee) at Tap In Counselling Service is a compassionate counsellor, whose broad experience strengthens her ability to adapt evidence-based approaches according to individual support and recovery needs. Dorte (Dee) supports adults, couples & adolescents to discover and tap into their resources, strengths, and supports that guide enhanced wellbeing, desired changes, and healing. Individuals with BUPA and Australian Regional Health Group (ARHG) private health cover may be eligible to claim session rebates.
(08) 6493 7783 View (08) 6493 7783
Photo of Nadia Kidgell, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Nadia Kidgell
Counsellor, ACA-L1
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
South Perth, WA 6151
Hello! I’m Nadia Kidgell, and I’m passionate about family therapy. As the principal counsellor at Discovery Family Therapy, I specialize in working with children and their families around several critical areas such as ADHD, Autism, Grief and Loss, Eating Disorders, Trauma and Crisis as well as Divorce and Separation.
Hello! I’m Nadia Kidgell, and I’m passionate about family therapy. As the principal counsellor at Discovery Family Therapy, I specialize in working with children and their families around several critical areas such as ADHD, Autism, Grief and Loss, Eating Disorders, Trauma and Crisis as well as Divorce and Separation.
(08) 6147 0116 View (08) 6147 0116
Photo of Denise Geldens, Psychologist in South Perth, WA
Denise Geldens
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
South Perth, WA 6151
Denise is a registered and endorsed Counselling Psychologist with the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency. She has been counselling for over 10 years and works with adults and couples. Denise also provides Board Approved Supervision for Provisional Psychologists and Counselling Endorsement Registrars. She draws from a number of evidence based therapies, depending on the needs of the client. Denise holds a client centered approach to therapy, she feels that it is important that within therapy a person feel understood, empowered and safe.
Denise is a registered and endorsed Counselling Psychologist with the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency. She has been counselling for over 10 years and works with adults and couples. Denise also provides Board Approved Supervision for Provisional Psychologists and Counselling Endorsement Registrars. She draws from a number of evidence based therapies, depending on the needs of the client. Denise holds a client centered approach to therapy, she feels that it is important that within therapy a person feel understood, empowered and safe.
(08) 6490 9124 View (08) 6490 9124
Photo of Tracy Hwang, Psychologist in South Perth, WA
Tracy Hwang
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
Tracy has experience and interest working with: General mental health and wellbeing, Stress management and resilience coaching, Couples and relationship counselling, Dealing with change and adjustment, Workplace challenges such as bullying/harassment/assault, Workplace termination/redundancy, Managing conflict or difficult conversations, Leadership development and coaching, Anxiety-related conditions, Depression and mood-related conditions, Trauma-related conditions, Anger and emotional regulation conditions, Sleep and fatigue management concerns, Personal growth and development.
Tracy has experience and interest working with: General mental health and wellbeing, Stress management and resilience coaching, Couples and relationship counselling, Dealing with change and adjustment, Workplace challenges such as bullying/harassment/assault, Workplace termination/redundancy, Managing conflict or difficult conversations, Leadership development and coaching, Anxiety-related conditions, Depression and mood-related conditions, Trauma-related conditions, Anger and emotional regulation conditions, Sleep and fatigue management concerns, Personal growth and development.
(08) 6361 3225 View (08) 6361 3225
Photo of Cara Mayne, Psychologist in South Perth, WA
Cara Mayne
Psychologist, MSc, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
I am a compassionate and caring clinician who is passionate about supporting young people and adults in overcoming their challenges, identifying their strengths, and giving them the tools to thrive. I seek to deliver a collaborative, person-centred, and solution-focused therapy in which clients feel comfortable and supported to overcome their challenges, achieve their goals, and gain insight and tools to develop healthy patterns of behaviour. I have a passion for working with children, adolescents, and adults and I provide a range of evidence-based interventions.
I am a compassionate and caring clinician who is passionate about supporting young people and adults in overcoming their challenges, identifying their strengths, and giving them the tools to thrive. I seek to deliver a collaborative, person-centred, and solution-focused therapy in which clients feel comfortable and supported to overcome their challenges, achieve their goals, and gain insight and tools to develop healthy patterns of behaviour. I have a passion for working with children, adolescents, and adults and I provide a range of evidence-based interventions.
(08) 6361 2958 View (08) 6361 2958
Photo of Louisa Holmes, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Louisa Holmes
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
I have enabled people to connect with their meaning and purpose in life and find an acceptance of their own uniqueness, assisting people with struggles ranging from thoughts of suicide, anxiety, existential angst, complex trauma and relationship difficulties. I believe that the therapeutic space is a space where people can work through the things in life that hold them back from thriving rather than surviving. Childhood trauma and family dynamics/narratives that have defined us can be processed and redefined to offer us freedom to exist as we want to.
I have enabled people to connect with their meaning and purpose in life and find an acceptance of their own uniqueness, assisting people with struggles ranging from thoughts of suicide, anxiety, existential angst, complex trauma and relationship difficulties. I believe that the therapeutic space is a space where people can work through the things in life that hold them back from thriving rather than surviving. Childhood trauma and family dynamics/narratives that have defined us can be processed and redefined to offer us freedom to exist as we want to.
(08) 7078 7573 View (08) 7078 7573
Photo of Choy Lee, Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Choy Lee
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
South Perth, WA 6151
My specialty is in Couple and Family Relationship where I explore the relationship dynamics and individual make-up. I also have great interest in Young Adult Self-Discovery. Individuals or couples who are experiencing conflict, feeling lost, fearful, angry, confuse, guilty, unworthy and/or frustration within themselves or towards others are often symptoms. I offer individuals and couples/family a safe space to identify their pain, explore options to restore brokenness, attempt forgiveness & acceptance; initiate rebuilding a happy, stable and healthy relationships in the new season of their life. All at their own pace.
My specialty is in Couple and Family Relationship where I explore the relationship dynamics and individual make-up. I also have great interest in Young Adult Self-Discovery. Individuals or couples who are experiencing conflict, feeling lost, fearful, angry, confuse, guilty, unworthy and/or frustration within themselves or towards others are often symptoms. I offer individuals and couples/family a safe space to identify their pain, explore options to restore brokenness, attempt forgiveness & acceptance; initiate rebuilding a happy, stable and healthy relationships in the new season of their life. All at their own pace.
(08) 6361 2944 View (08) 6361 2944
Photo of Emma Ketley, Occupational Therapist in South Perth, WA
Emma Ketley
Occupational Therapist
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Emma is the (proud) owner and Principal Therapist at Enriched By Experience.com. “EBE” is a dynamic Therapy service that strives to support its clients to become “Enriched by Experience” as they find the wisdom, meaning, and achievement in their own story. Emma is a highly experienced AHPRA Registered Therapist. She provides therapy and coaching to adolescents and adults in the areas of anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, suicidal expression, re-motivation, self-harm, trauma, social issues, stage of life adjustments, ADHD support, and with people living with chronic pain conditions.
Emma is the (proud) owner and Principal Therapist at Enriched By Experience.com. “EBE” is a dynamic Therapy service that strives to support its clients to become “Enriched by Experience” as they find the wisdom, meaning, and achievement in their own story. Emma is a highly experienced AHPRA Registered Therapist. She provides therapy and coaching to adolescents and adults in the areas of anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, suicidal expression, re-motivation, self-harm, trauma, social issues, stage of life adjustments, ADHD support, and with people living with chronic pain conditions.
(08) 6383 7108 View (08) 6383 7108
Photo of Colette McKenna, Psychologist in South Perth, WA
Colette McKenna
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
As a compassionate and experienced psychologist, I work with children and adults, understanding school learning disorders, supporting young people in navigating conflicts and relationship issues, assisting with parenting challenges understanding loss and grief and overcoming the specific challenges you seek to overcome in the present and those from the past. I focus on building self-esteem and autonomy and empowering clients to make real change. In therapy, we will work together to break invisible chains, internalised maladaptive perceptions and expectations and silence debilitating inner voices to bring improved quality of life.
As a compassionate and experienced psychologist, I work with children and adults, understanding school learning disorders, supporting young people in navigating conflicts and relationship issues, assisting with parenting challenges understanding loss and grief and overcoming the specific challenges you seek to overcome in the present and those from the past. I focus on building self-esteem and autonomy and empowering clients to make real change. In therapy, we will work together to break invisible chains, internalised maladaptive perceptions and expectations and silence debilitating inner voices to bring improved quality of life.
(08) 9473 6351 View (08) 9473 6351
Photo of Cherry Tree Counselling , Counsellor in South Perth, WA
Cherry Tree Counselling
Counsellor, MA, PACFA
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
Waitlist for new clients
Cherry Tree Counselling is a small, private and supportive service for children and adolescents in South Perth. My passion is to support children and adolescents with anxiety, emotional regulation and friendship skills. Having gained a Masters of Counselling from Monash University, a BA (Hons) in Education and a Post Graduate teaching degree, I am able to tailor sessions to your child's individual needs.
Cherry Tree Counselling is a small, private and supportive service for children and adolescents in South Perth. My passion is to support children and adolescents with anxiety, emotional regulation and friendship skills. Having gained a Masters of Counselling from Monash University, a BA (Hons) in Education and a Post Graduate teaching degree, I am able to tailor sessions to your child's individual needs.
(08) 7078 8281 View (08) 7078 8281
Photo of Lottie Hitch, Psychologist in South Perth, WA
Lottie Hitch
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
Lottie’s approach to therapy centres on the motto that “nothing changes, if nothing changes”. She works with her clients to identify and implement small achievable changes in their lifestyle to improve their overall wellbeing and health. Lottie enjoys working collaboratively with others and endeavours to create a non-judgemental environment for clients to explore their personal and therapeutic goals. She incorporates her passion and background as a Teacher into the therapeutic space by advocating the importance of educating clients on the intricacies of mental health and exploring personalised strategies to overcome adversity.
Lottie’s approach to therapy centres on the motto that “nothing changes, if nothing changes”. She works with her clients to identify and implement small achievable changes in their lifestyle to improve their overall wellbeing and health. Lottie enjoys working collaboratively with others and endeavours to create a non-judgemental environment for clients to explore their personal and therapeutic goals. She incorporates her passion and background as a Teacher into the therapeutic space by advocating the importance of educating clients on the intricacies of mental health and exploring personalised strategies to overcome adversity.
(08) 6490 9823 View (08) 6490 9823
Photo of Rahul Gadhoke, Psychologist in South Perth, WA
Rahul Gadhoke
Psychologist, MA, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
South Perth, WA 6151
Rahul holds a Masters in Science (Psychology) and a Bachelor in Business and Arts (Majoring in Psychology). Rahul understands that each person has their own unique mental health journey. Most people would describe him as a friendly, easy-going, compassionate, and understanding person. Being a regular travelle and having lived in five different countries, he brings a strong understanding of various cultural differences into his practice. Rahul also has a keen interest in sports and performance and has experience in applying Psychological techniques to help improve performance. Rahul takes a collaborative approach, providing a
Rahul holds a Masters in Science (Psychology) and a Bachelor in Business and Arts (Majoring in Psychology). Rahul understands that each person has their own unique mental health journey. Most people would describe him as a friendly, easy-going, compassionate, and understanding person. Being a regular travelle and having lived in five different countries, he brings a strong understanding of various cultural differences into his practice. Rahul also has a keen interest in sports and performance and has experience in applying Psychological techniques to help improve performance. Rahul takes a collaborative approach, providing a
(08) 6336 9997 View (08) 6336 9997

See more therapy options for South Perth

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in South Perth, WA

70+

Average cost per session

$190

Counsellors in South Perth, WA who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Self Esteem
81% Stress
76% Relationship Issues
71% Coping Skills
66% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

62% Bupa
56% Medicare Rebates
56% Medibank Private

How Counsellors in South Perth, WA see their clients

95% In Person and Online
5% Online Only

Gender breakdown

74% Female
25% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in South Perth?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.