Counselling in Earlwood, NSW

Photo of Tim Carey, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Tim Carey
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
I have over 20 years working with teens and adults in providing direct care to disabled and able bodied adults as a carer and psychologist. I help people with a wide range of issues: Depression, Anxiety, Substance Use, Loss and Grief, PTSD, Work Cover (SIRA accredited), and Compulsory Third Party.
I have over 20 years working with teens and adults in providing direct care to disabled and able bodied adults as a carer and psychologist. I help people with a wide range of issues: Depression, Anxiety, Substance Use, Loss and Grief, PTSD, Work Cover (SIRA accredited), and Compulsory Third Party.
(02) 8503 4454 View (02) 8503 4454
Photo of Laura Jones, MC, ACA-L2, Psychotherapist
Laura Jones
Psychotherapist, MC, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206  (Online Only)
I have extensive professional and personal experience with Neurodiversity (including ADHD and Autism), Domestic and Family Violence, Trauma & PTSD, Grief and loss, Depression and Suicidal Ideation. Our sessions will be focused on you; your goals, your strengths and what you are hoping to achieve. No one knows your story better than you do, and my aim is to provide a safe environment where you feel heard and validated.
I have extensive professional and personal experience with Neurodiversity (including ADHD and Autism), Domestic and Family Violence, Trauma & PTSD, Grief and loss, Depression and Suicidal Ideation. Our sessions will be focused on you; your goals, your strengths and what you are hoping to achieve. No one knows your story better than you do, and my aim is to provide a safe environment where you feel heard and validated.
(02) 8599 7286 View (02) 8599 7286
Photo of Marie Mooney, PACFA, Psychotherapist
Marie Mooney
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
I honour the innate wisdom in all of us, and hold deep respect and compassion for people. My aim is to provide a safe, compassionate and healing space, where you can talk about, explore and find solutions to what's really happening in your life and whatever brings you to counselling. I will support you to create a healthy relationship and connection with yourself and others, and will walk with you, as you overcome the obstacles, and celebrate the steps you take towards living more of the life you desire.
I honour the innate wisdom in all of us, and hold deep respect and compassion for people. My aim is to provide a safe, compassionate and healing space, where you can talk about, explore and find solutions to what's really happening in your life and whatever brings you to counselling. I will support you to create a healthy relationship and connection with yourself and others, and will walk with you, as you overcome the obstacles, and celebrate the steps you take towards living more of the life you desire.
(02) 8105 5005 View (02) 8105 5005
Photo of undefined - Good Thinking Psychology
Good Thinking Psychology
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
If you’re seeking help to make positive change in your life, our friendly team of psychologists can work with you to uncover, treat and remedy a wide range of concerns. Our aim is to get to the heart of the problem and develop practical solutions that you can apply in real life. We work one on one with adults, teenagers and children, or collectively with couples and families. We use a collection of proven therapies to treat people on an individual level. There is only one of you, so we want to choose an effective strategy that resonates just with you, and helps you take back control of your life.
If you’re seeking help to make positive change in your life, our friendly team of psychologists can work with you to uncover, treat and remedy a wide range of concerns. Our aim is to get to the heart of the problem and develop practical solutions that you can apply in real life. We work one on one with adults, teenagers and children, or collectively with couples and families. We use a collection of proven therapies to treat people on an individual level. There is only one of you, so we want to choose an effective strategy that resonates just with you, and helps you take back control of your life.
(02) 8503 4420 View (02) 8503 4420
Photo of Anneliese Cooper, Counsellor
Anneliese Cooper
Counsellor
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Some children right now are really struggling. Struggling with anxiety, depression and overwhelm from the world around them. They aren't fulling understanding their feelings and emotions and they can't express or converse clearly to the adults in their life, what they mean or how they are feeling. I am here for these children and their families and I am very passionate about helping you find balance within your family, learn to adjust, grow, develop strategies and be confident within them selves.
Some children right now are really struggling. Struggling with anxiety, depression and overwhelm from the world around them. They aren't fulling understanding their feelings and emotions and they can't express or converse clearly to the adults in their life, what they mean or how they are feeling. I am here for these children and their families and I am very passionate about helping you find balance within your family, learn to adjust, grow, develop strategies and be confident within them selves.
(02) 8105 5944 View (02) 8105 5944
Photo of Fiona Tzouramanis, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Fiona Tzouramanis
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Not accepting new clients
Fiona is a Registered Psychologist and Marte Meo Therapist, who has provided counselling and therapy to children, adolescents, adults and families for approximately 15 years. Fiona takes a multi-disciplinary approach to her work, involving school staff, Medical and Allied Health practitioners where appropriate to ensure each client has the support they need to have the best chance at success in therapy. Fiona is client focused and believes in the importance of developing a trusting therapeutic relationship with each of her clients in order to meet their needs and to provide the best outcome.
Fiona is a Registered Psychologist and Marte Meo Therapist, who has provided counselling and therapy to children, adolescents, adults and families for approximately 15 years. Fiona takes a multi-disciplinary approach to her work, involving school staff, Medical and Allied Health practitioners where appropriate to ensure each client has the support they need to have the best chance at success in therapy. Fiona is client focused and believes in the importance of developing a trusting therapeutic relationship with each of her clients in order to meet their needs and to provide the best outcome.
(02) 8766 0513 View (02) 8766 0513
Photo of Theodora (Dora) Binasis, PsyBA - Clin. Psych, Psychologist
Theodora (Dora) Binasis
Psychologist, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Not accepting new clients
I am a passionate and dedicated Clinical Psychologist specialising in work with children and their families with a demonstrated history of working in private and community mental health settings. I work with and support people with a range of mental health goals including emotion regulation, anxiety, behaviour, tics, trauma, with a special interest in Autism, ADHD, and Selective Mutism. I am particularly passionate about working with neurodivergent individuals in an affirming manner. I hope to educate families and the wider community about Neurodivergence not being a disorder but rather a unique way of experiencing one's world.
I am a passionate and dedicated Clinical Psychologist specialising in work with children and their families with a demonstrated history of working in private and community mental health settings. I work with and support people with a range of mental health goals including emotion regulation, anxiety, behaviour, tics, trauma, with a special interest in Autism, ADHD, and Selective Mutism. I am particularly passionate about working with neurodivergent individuals in an affirming manner. I hope to educate families and the wider community about Neurodivergence not being a disorder but rather a unique way of experiencing one's world.
(02) 8105 5138 View (02) 8105 5138
Photo of Georgia Ashworth, Psychologist
Georgia Ashworth
Psychologist
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Georgia is a psychologist at the Australian Institute for Human Wellness. She has a genuine and empathetic therapeutic style, committed to providing a non-judgemental space to achieve therapeutic goals through evidence-based psychological therapy. Georgia is a registered psychologist and clinical psychology registrar who completed her Masters of Clinical Psychology at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), as well as previous studies in psychology at Macquarie University (MQ) and the Australian College of Applied Psychology (ACAP). She has an interest in public health, having completed research on gambling and drug addictions.
Georgia is a psychologist at the Australian Institute for Human Wellness. She has a genuine and empathetic therapeutic style, committed to providing a non-judgemental space to achieve therapeutic goals through evidence-based psychological therapy. Georgia is a registered psychologist and clinical psychology registrar who completed her Masters of Clinical Psychology at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), as well as previous studies in psychology at Macquarie University (MQ) and the Australian College of Applied Psychology (ACAP). She has an interest in public health, having completed research on gambling and drug addictions.
(02) 8105 5765 View (02) 8105 5765
Photo of undefined - Kirthana Selvaraj, Art Therapist, AThR, Counsellor, AThR
Kirthana Selvaraj, Art Therapist, AThR, Counsellor
Art Therapist, AThR
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I aim to support you within areas of relationship issues, family conflict, building confidence, racial trauma, burnout, diverse body image, gender and sexuality, work stress , imposter syndrome, social justice fatigue, coping with anxiety, depression and loneliness. My therapeutic stance is deeply embedded in an intersectional philosophy. I offer Art Therapy, where I support you to explore, using imagination, metaphor and symbolism, I also offer Counselling that is progressive, relational, creative and adaptive to your therapeutic goals.
I aim to support you within areas of relationship issues, family conflict, building confidence, racial trauma, burnout, diverse body image, gender and sexuality, work stress , imposter syndrome, social justice fatigue, coping with anxiety, depression and loneliness. My therapeutic stance is deeply embedded in an intersectional philosophy. I offer Art Therapy, where I support you to explore, using imagination, metaphor and symbolism, I also offer Counselling that is progressive, relational, creative and adaptive to your therapeutic goals.
(02) 8074 5775 View (02) 8074 5775
Photo of Lyndell Weaver, ACA-L4, Counsellor
Lyndell Weaver
Counsellor, ACA-L4
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Are you struggling with major changes, loss or uncertainty about the future? Maybe you're contending with a child’s worsening behaviour or mental health and you're feeling overwhelmed, frustrated or at a loss. Your family or intimate relationships may be more strained or volatile and you find yourself reacting to or retreating from others more than you'd like. Real Life Counselling provides a supportive space to explore and address your concerns about the realities facing you and your loved ones.
Are you struggling with major changes, loss or uncertainty about the future? Maybe you're contending with a child’s worsening behaviour or mental health and you're feeling overwhelmed, frustrated or at a loss. Your family or intimate relationships may be more strained or volatile and you find yourself reacting to or retreating from others more than you'd like. Real Life Counselling provides a supportive space to explore and address your concerns about the realities facing you and your loved ones.
(02) 8806 0251 View (02) 8806 0251
Photo of Agnes Youn Ji Ryu, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych, Psychologist
Agnes Youn Ji Ryu
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
I am a Clinical Psychologist who is passionate in creating a welcoming and non-judgmental space. I see people of all ages and backgrounds. My interests lie in trauma-informed therapy and focusing on how childhood experiences may have shaped my clients into who they are today. Each person holds their own story and their treatment should reflect that. I also welcome those with neurodivergent concerns (Autism and ADHD) and accept NDIS clients. If you are motivated to improve your mental wellbeing, I am ready to help and guide you on your journey.
I am a Clinical Psychologist who is passionate in creating a welcoming and non-judgmental space. I see people of all ages and backgrounds. My interests lie in trauma-informed therapy and focusing on how childhood experiences may have shaped my clients into who they are today. Each person holds their own story and their treatment should reflect that. I also welcome those with neurodivergent concerns (Autism and ADHD) and accept NDIS clients. If you are motivated to improve your mental wellbeing, I am ready to help and guide you on your journey.
(02) 8105 6340 View (02) 8105 6340
Photo of Roberta Iavarone - The Listening Pod, ACA-L2, Counsellor
Roberta Iavarone - The Listening Pod
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Are you struggling to navigate a challenging life situation such as a relationship break-up, conflict with a family member or work colleague, life stage such as menopause, or are generally feeling stuck & unhappy in your life & are wanting more ? You may be feeling depressed, anxious and alone and in need of someone to talk to who genuinely cares and can support you to build skills & confidence to work towards your wellbeing goals? Hi I'm Roberta & I have a special interest in working with women & men in all stages of life to help them move through life's challenges so they can live their best & most meaningful life!
Are you struggling to navigate a challenging life situation such as a relationship break-up, conflict with a family member or work colleague, life stage such as menopause, or are generally feeling stuck & unhappy in your life & are wanting more ? You may be feeling depressed, anxious and alone and in need of someone to talk to who genuinely cares and can support you to build skills & confidence to work towards your wellbeing goals? Hi I'm Roberta & I have a special interest in working with women & men in all stages of life to help them move through life's challenges so they can live their best & most meaningful life!
(02) 9100 0107 View (02) 9100 0107
Photo of Alex Dunwoodie, MC, PACFA, Psychotherapist
Alex Dunwoodie
Psychotherapist, MC, PACFA
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
I am a Person-centred Counsellor and Psychotherapist, my goal is to create a safe and nurturing space where clients can explore their strengths, develop coping strategies, and enhance their self-awareness. I provide support for a wide range of mental health concerns including trauma, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, life transitions, parenting and personal growth.
I am a Person-centred Counsellor and Psychotherapist, my goal is to create a safe and nurturing space where clients can explore their strengths, develop coping strategies, and enhance their self-awareness. I provide support for a wide range of mental health concerns including trauma, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, life transitions, parenting and personal growth.
(02) 8000 0822 View (02) 8000 0822
Photo of undefined - Anne-Marie Taylor - Seen Felt Heard Counselling, MA, ACA-L4, Counsellor
Anne-Marie Taylor - Seen Felt Heard Counselling
Counsellor, MA, ACA-L4
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Imagine making changes to break free from what's holding you back, getting clarity about your next steps, and working towards the life you want. I specialize in helping people who are ready for change and want to transform their lives. My approach helps you identify and break free from unhelpful patterns, gain clarity, and develop the skills to navigate life's challenges. By understanding the influence of your past, making sense of your present, and creating a future in line with your values, together we facilitate a space for growth.
Imagine making changes to break free from what's holding you back, getting clarity about your next steps, and working towards the life you want. I specialize in helping people who are ready for change and want to transform their lives. My approach helps you identify and break free from unhelpful patterns, gain clarity, and develop the skills to navigate life's challenges. By understanding the influence of your past, making sense of your present, and creating a future in line with your values, together we facilitate a space for growth.
(02) 9100 0780 View (02) 9100 0780
Photo of Tegan Webb, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Tegan Webb
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
I provide psychological intervention to young people (12+) and adults (18+), with a focus on developing insight into your current life difficulties (eg anxiety, depression, issues connecting with people), considering how you would like your life to be, and beginning to take actions toward that desired life. I utilise Schema Therapy, with elements from a range of other therapy models (eg ACT, IPT, DBT, CBT) where needed, particularly when assisting people to develop new skills.
I provide psychological intervention to young people (12+) and adults (18+), with a focus on developing insight into your current life difficulties (eg anxiety, depression, issues connecting with people), considering how you would like your life to be, and beginning to take actions toward that desired life. I utilise Schema Therapy, with elements from a range of other therapy models (eg ACT, IPT, DBT, CBT) where needed, particularly when assisting people to develop new skills.
(02) 8503 8260 View (02) 8503 8260
Photo of Rachel Richardson, MPsych, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Rachel Richardson
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
I have worked with children, adolescents and families for over 10 years across parenting residential care, child protection, outreach and education settings. ​ In private practice, I work with various neurotypes and mental health presentations including anxiety, depression, OCD, and emotion dysregulation. I support neurodivergent (Autism and ADHD) children and adolescents to feel empowered in their neurotype and enhance awareness of their individual social, emotional and communication preference.
I have worked with children, adolescents and families for over 10 years across parenting residential care, child protection, outreach and education settings. ​ In private practice, I work with various neurotypes and mental health presentations including anxiety, depression, OCD, and emotion dysregulation. I support neurodivergent (Autism and ADHD) children and adolescents to feel empowered in their neurotype and enhance awareness of their individual social, emotional and communication preference.
(02) 9100 0360 View (02) 9100 0360
Photo of Jane Rabie- Play Therapist, AASW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jane Rabie- Play Therapist
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AASW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Often children don’t have words to describe their experiences and feelings and instead reveal them through behaviours which can be misunderstood. They may get into trouble, be labelled, or disconnect. I work with children and families just like this. As a carer, reaching out for support can be the hardest step. I work closely with you and your child through Play Therapy which is relationship based therapy for children aged 3-12 years. Play is a child’s natural way of communicating and Play Therapy creates the environment where the therapist enters into a child’s world and understands the experience from their perspective.
Often children don’t have words to describe their experiences and feelings and instead reveal them through behaviours which can be misunderstood. They may get into trouble, be labelled, or disconnect. I work with children and families just like this. As a carer, reaching out for support can be the hardest step. I work closely with you and your child through Play Therapy which is relationship based therapy for children aged 3-12 years. Play is a child’s natural way of communicating and Play Therapy creates the environment where the therapist enters into a child’s world and understands the experience from their perspective.
(02) 9100 0607 View (02) 9100 0607
Photo of Metaxia Toumbelekis, PhD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych, Psychologist
Metaxia Toumbelekis
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
Welcome to my boutique Clinical Psychology practice. I am a warm, empathic Clinical Psychologist, and a mother of two young children. I have worked in community, public and private hospital settings, with experience working with children, adolescents and adults providing individual, parenting and group-based interventions. I have a particular interest working with adults who have experienced significant stressors or trauma in their life, who are struggling with feelings of anxiety or depression and with individuals who generally would like to gain further insight or coping strategies to deal with life’s challenges.
Welcome to my boutique Clinical Psychology practice. I am a warm, empathic Clinical Psychologist, and a mother of two young children. I have worked in community, public and private hospital settings, with experience working with children, adolescents and adults providing individual, parenting and group-based interventions. I have a particular interest working with adults who have experienced significant stressors or trauma in their life, who are struggling with feelings of anxiety or depression and with individuals who generally would like to gain further insight or coping strategies to deal with life’s challenges.
(02) 8000 1569 View (02) 8000 1569
Tanya Koens
Counsellor
Verified Verified
Earlwood, NSW 2206
(02) 8105 5891 View (02) 8105 5891

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of undefined - Anthony Arpino (Proud Place Therapy), ACA-L2, Counsellor
Anthony Arpino (Proud Place Therapy)
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Marrickville, NSW 2204
Empathetic and non-judgemental counselling for LGBTQIA+ individuals in the Sydney area (in-person/online) and Australia-wide (online only). Life today can be challenging and, at times, seeking therapy can help you work through life's difficulties in a safe, supported way, particularly if you’re feeling stuck or suffering with anxiety and distress due to current challenges or past traumatic experiences. Whether you're looking to improve your mental health, enhance your relationships, explore your sexual/gender identities, get support in 'coming out', increase self-esteem or get more clarity about life decisions, I am here to help.
Empathetic and non-judgemental counselling for LGBTQIA+ individuals in the Sydney area (in-person/online) and Australia-wide (online only). Life today can be challenging and, at times, seeking therapy can help you work through life's difficulties in a safe, supported way, particularly if you’re feeling stuck or suffering with anxiety and distress due to current challenges or past traumatic experiences. Whether you're looking to improve your mental health, enhance your relationships, explore your sexual/gender identities, get support in 'coming out', increase self-esteem or get more clarity about life decisions, I am here to help.
(02) 9100 0554 View (02) 9100 0554

See more therapy options for Earlwood

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Earlwood, NSW

10+

Average cost per session

$160

Counsellors in Earlwood, NSW who prioritize treating:

89% Depression
89% Self Esteem
84% Anxiety
74% Parenting
68% Stress
63% Trauma and PTSD
63% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

60% Medicare Rebates
60% NDIS
40% Other

How Counsellors in Earlwood, NSW see their clients

90% In Person and Online
10% Online Only

Gender breakdown

95% Female
5% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Earlwood?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.