Counselling in Armidale, NSW

Photo of Debra (Deb) Kaita Kakiiza, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Debra (Deb) Kaita Kakiiza
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Armidale, NSW 2350  (Online Only)
Deb is a registered psychologist with a Masters in Counselling Psychology and a Masters in Grief and Loss, as well as Bachelor of Psychology (Honours) and a Bachelor of Counselling. Deb is experiences working with a wide range of people and she values Telehealth as it increases access to psychological support for everyone. Deb works with anyone aged 16 years and older experiencing life challenges such as: anxiety, depression, trauma, stress, life transition, grief and loss, relationship difficulties, family violence, career and work challenges, study-related difficulties and substance use.
Deb is a registered psychologist with a Masters in Counselling Psychology and a Masters in Grief and Loss, as well as Bachelor of Psychology (Honours) and a Bachelor of Counselling. Deb is experiences working with a wide range of people and she values Telehealth as it increases access to psychological support for everyone. Deb works with anyone aged 16 years and older experiencing life challenges such as: anxiety, depression, trauma, stress, life transition, grief and loss, relationship difficulties, family violence, career and work challenges, study-related difficulties and substance use.
1800 327 477 View 1800 327 477
Photo of Stuart Fisher, MC, ACA-L4, Counsellor
Stuart Fisher
Counsellor, MC, ACA-L4
Verified Verified
Armidale, NSW 2350
Stuart is an ACA (Level 4) Registered Clinical Counsellor. With decades of experience. Stuart is an authentic, compassionate, and supportive counsellor. He believes that empathy can change the world and that the people he works with deserve love and care. Recognising that emotions heal when they are witnessed and validated. Professionally Stuart is passionate about working with people who have experienced any form of trauma, sexual abuse, violence in relationships, workplace bullying, grief & loss, and all mental health acuities. His goal is to help her clients see their strengths, build resilience, and create manageable goals.
Stuart is an ACA (Level 4) Registered Clinical Counsellor. With decades of experience. Stuart is an authentic, compassionate, and supportive counsellor. He believes that empathy can change the world and that the people he works with deserve love and care. Recognising that emotions heal when they are witnessed and validated. Professionally Stuart is passionate about working with people who have experienced any form of trauma, sexual abuse, violence in relationships, workplace bullying, grief & loss, and all mental health acuities. His goal is to help her clients see their strengths, build resilience, and create manageable goals.
(02) 5701 5344 View (02) 5701 5344
Photo of Frances Amaroux, Counsellor
Frances Amaroux
Counsellor
Verified Verified
Armidale, NSW 2350
Imagine a life where you have the skills and attitudes to create the most wonderful on-going relationships with partner, children, family, colleagues and friends.... starting with how you love and respect yourself. LOVE and LIFE are things that we DO, so having a coach or mentor can make all the difference in living the life you came here to live.
Imagine a life where you have the skills and attitudes to create the most wonderful on-going relationships with partner, children, family, colleagues and friends.... starting with how you love and respect yourself. LOVE and LIFE are things that we DO, so having a coach or mentor can make all the difference in living the life you came here to live.
(02) 5604 9609 View (02) 5604 9609
Photo of Kerryn Smith - Life Changes Tamworth, AMHSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kerryn Smith - Life Changes Tamworth
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Armidale, NSW 2350
Hi, I'm Kerryn and I am an Accredited Mental Health Social Worker with an absolute passion for everything perinatal. For 16yrs I have been working towards my goal of setting up a supportive space for want to be mummas, pregnant mummas and new mummas in the postpartum period. Having a space where you feel comfortable and able to be honest with what you are thinking and feeling can be a game changer. I love to be able to support mummas (and dads) to enjoy their pregnancy and becoming a parent, accepting their experiences, the good and the hard times, whilst also remaining true to themselves is really important to me.
Hi, I'm Kerryn and I am an Accredited Mental Health Social Worker with an absolute passion for everything perinatal. For 16yrs I have been working towards my goal of setting up a supportive space for want to be mummas, pregnant mummas and new mummas in the postpartum period. Having a space where you feel comfortable and able to be honest with what you are thinking and feeling can be a game changer. I love to be able to support mummas (and dads) to enjoy their pregnancy and becoming a parent, accepting their experiences, the good and the hard times, whilst also remaining true to themselves is really important to me.
(02) 5748 4723 View (02) 5748 4723
Photo of Jessica Dolev, AMHSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jessica Dolev
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified Verified
Armidale, NSW 2350
Hi! I am Jess - Founder and Clinical Director of Perfectly Imperfect.  ​ I am an allistic advocate. I provide neuro-diversity affirming psychology services for autistic, ADHER's, queer, and gender-diverse people, well as those within the neurotypical community struggling with anxiety, depression, stress, family conflict to name a few.  ​ We will work on developing self-compassion and self-acceptance, self-care and healthy boundaries.
Hi! I am Jess - Founder and Clinical Director of Perfectly Imperfect.  ​ I am an allistic advocate. I provide neuro-diversity affirming psychology services for autistic, ADHER's, queer, and gender-diverse people, well as those within the neurotypical community struggling with anxiety, depression, stress, family conflict to name a few.  ​ We will work on developing self-compassion and self-acceptance, self-care and healthy boundaries.
(02) 9100 0039 View (02) 9100 0039
Jason Newcombe
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Armidale, NSW 2350
(02) 5701 5315 View (02) 5701 5315

Online Therapists

Photo of Anne Arrowsmith - Anne Arrowsmith Counselling, ACA-L2, Psychotherapist
Anne Arrowsmith Counselling
Psychotherapist, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
Coffs Harbour, NSW 2450
My entrance to psychotherapy and counselling evolved over many of years of training, personal therapy and life experience. I work with peoples of all ages and have experience with many personal issues including depression, anxiety, relationship problems both between couples and extended families. I have also worked extensively with people addicted to drugs and alcohol. In addition I use mindfulness, breathing techniques, visualization and bodywork to enhance the outcome. Every person is unique therefore I work eclectically with my clients, adapting to the needs of the individual in order to achieve the best possible outcome.
My entrance to psychotherapy and counselling evolved over many of years of training, personal therapy and life experience. I work with peoples of all ages and have experience with many personal issues including depression, anxiety, relationship problems both between couples and extended families. I have also worked extensively with people addicted to drugs and alcohol. In addition I use mindfulness, breathing techniques, visualization and bodywork to enhance the outcome. Every person is unique therefore I work eclectically with my clients, adapting to the needs of the individual in order to achieve the best possible outcome.
(02) 5605 4802 View (02) 5605 4802
Photo of Jodi Wittenberg, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych, Psychologist
Jodi Wittenberg
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Sawtell, NSW 2452
I am a clinical psychologist, an EMDR therapist and a board approved supervisor. I have a special interest in providing treatment to first responders, veterans and sexual assault survivors. I work with adult clients who are experiencing symptoms of trauma, anxiety disorders and PTSD.
I am a clinical psychologist, an EMDR therapist and a board approved supervisor. I have a special interest in providing treatment to first responders, veterans and sexual assault survivors. I work with adult clients who are experiencing symptoms of trauma, anxiety disorders and PTSD.
(02) 5603 4420 View (02) 5603 4420
Photo of Anne Brown, MA, ACA-L4, Counsellor
Anne Brown
Counsellor, MA, ACA-L4
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Port Macquarie, NSW 2444
Anne loves working young people, adults and couples and has 24 years of experience in counselling. She has a holistic approach, focusing on the balance between physical, emotional, social, cognitive and spiritual aspects of self. Anne provides a safe and healing place to work through difficulties in life. She specialises in areas of anxiety, depression, trauma, grief and loss, parenting and relationship challenges. Anne is trained in Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR), expressive therapy, Gottman therapy, Theraplay and is informed by a variety of approaches including psychodynamic and attachment focussed approaches
Anne loves working young people, adults and couples and has 24 years of experience in counselling. She has a holistic approach, focusing on the balance between physical, emotional, social, cognitive and spiritual aspects of self. Anne provides a safe and healing place to work through difficulties in life. She specialises in areas of anxiety, depression, trauma, grief and loss, parenting and relationship challenges. Anne is trained in Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR), expressive therapy, Gottman therapy, Theraplay and is informed by a variety of approaches including psychodynamic and attachment focussed approaches
(02) 5565 6548 View (02) 5565 6548
Photo of Dr Beulah Joseph, PhD, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Dr Beulah Joseph
Psychologist, PhD, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Coffs Harbour, NSW 2450
I am a registered psychologist, endorsed organisational psychologist and a member of the Australian Psychological Society. I partner with people from all walks and stages of life who are seeking psychological growth and would like assistance in improving their mental health.
I am a registered psychologist, endorsed organisational psychologist and a member of the Australian Psychological Society. I partner with people from all walks and stages of life who are seeking psychological growth and would like assistance in improving their mental health.
(03) 9000 0896 View (03) 9000 0896
Photo of Tori Donnelly - Tori Donnelly Counselling and Support , MA, AMHSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Tori Donnelly Counselling and Support
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, AMHSW
Verified Verified
Port Macquarie, NSW 2444
Tori is a Mental Health Accredited Social Worker and Certified Play Therapist, specialising in sexual abuse and other forms of trauma. Tori works with children, adolescents and adults with a trauma-informed approach.
Tori is a Mental Health Accredited Social Worker and Certified Play Therapist, specialising in sexual abuse and other forms of trauma. Tori works with children, adolescents and adults with a trauma-informed approach.
(02) 5566 2745 View (02) 5566 2745
Photo of Beth Roberts, PsyBA General, Psychologist
Beth Roberts
Psychologist, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Port Macquarie, NSW 2444
Beth is a warm and compassionate Psychologist with a special interest in treating adolescents and young adults with Eating Disorders, body image concerns and related issues such as depression, anxiety and trauma. She strongly believes that everybody deserves to be treated with respect and all bodies deserve respect. Beth works with clients aged 13-35yrs
Beth is a warm and compassionate Psychologist with a special interest in treating adolescents and young adults with Eating Disorders, body image concerns and related issues such as depression, anxiety and trauma. She strongly believes that everybody deserves to be treated with respect and all bodies deserve respect. Beth works with clients aged 13-35yrs
(02) 5504 1810 View (02) 5504 1810
Photo of Gabrielle Gawne-Kelnar, AMHSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Gabrielle Gawne-Kelnar
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified Verified
Grafton, NSW 2460
I'm a counsellor, psychotherapist and social work therapist with over 15 years of experience and extensive professional training. Guided by your life and preferences, together we can draw from many different therapy modalities, and work holistically to uncover and deepen your strengths. We will discover and enrich the values that really matter to you, and that can help you navigate your life with more meaning. I can share helpful strategies to support you, your child and family through challenging times. Together, we'll unearth the answers and experience you already hold within you, so you can walk toward healing and hope again.
I'm a counsellor, psychotherapist and social work therapist with over 15 years of experience and extensive professional training. Guided by your life and preferences, together we can draw from many different therapy modalities, and work holistically to uncover and deepen your strengths. We will discover and enrich the values that really matter to you, and that can help you navigate your life with more meaning. I can share helpful strategies to support you, your child and family through challenging times. Together, we'll unearth the answers and experience you already hold within you, so you can walk toward healing and hope again.
(02) 6422 6265 View (02) 6422 6265
Photo of Tricia Ang, PACFA, Psychotherapist
Tricia Ang
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified Verified
Coffs Harbour, NSW 2450
Waitlist for new clients
I specialise in assisting children, adolescents and adults who have experienced trauma from shocking/terrifying events, or developmental/complex trauma, and are struggling with symptoms such as flashbacks, hypervigilance, intrusive thoughts, overwhelming feelings of anger/ sadness/ anxiety/ shame, numbness, low self-worth, relationship/ boundary/ trust issues, powerlessness, and disconnection from self/others. Using a holistic approach that honours the mind-body connection, I'm dedicated to supporting individuals to transform chronic stuck patterns into deeper experiences of wellbeing, self-empowerment, freedom, joy and fulfilment.
I specialise in assisting children, adolescents and adults who have experienced trauma from shocking/terrifying events, or developmental/complex trauma, and are struggling with symptoms such as flashbacks, hypervigilance, intrusive thoughts, overwhelming feelings of anger/ sadness/ anxiety/ shame, numbness, low self-worth, relationship/ boundary/ trust issues, powerlessness, and disconnection from self/others. Using a holistic approach that honours the mind-body connection, I'm dedicated to supporting individuals to transform chronic stuck patterns into deeper experiences of wellbeing, self-empowerment, freedom, joy and fulfilment.
(02) 5605 2890 View (02) 5605 2890
Photo of Karen Clark - Paws for Thought Counselling, AMHSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Paws for Thought Counselling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AMHSW
Verified Verified
Taminda, NSW 2340
We can support you if you are experiencing anxiety, depression, PTSD, trauma and loss and grief and other mental health. We will walk beside you and encourage you through tailored therapeutic interventions to assist you to work towards achieving your clinical goals and living your best life. We also support couples in developing lasting relationships. I also specialise in supporting individuals show have experienced sexual assault or have been victims of crime or domestic violence.
We can support you if you are experiencing anxiety, depression, PTSD, trauma and loss and grief and other mental health. We will walk beside you and encourage you through tailored therapeutic interventions to assist you to work towards achieving your clinical goals and living your best life. We also support couples in developing lasting relationships. I also specialise in supporting individuals show have experienced sexual assault or have been victims of crime or domestic violence.
(02) 5700 0339 View (02) 5700 0339
Olivia Sakamoto
Counsellor, MA, ACA-L4
Verified Verified
Port Macquarie, NSW 2444
Olivia's experience as a Clinical Counsellor comes with more than a decade in private practice and pastoral care roles. Specialising in anxiety, depression, stress, trauma, workplace bullying, addictions, relationship counselling, family/blended, mediation, child and young adults, grief and anger management. Clientele include corporate who utilise workplace EAP and NDIS clients & private clients with an age range of 6 to 85 years. Face to Face, Video-link or Phone sessions are offered. Olivia who is known for her sincere, peaceful and non-judgmental manner uses evidence based therapies recognising there is no one size fits all.
Olivia's experience as a Clinical Counsellor comes with more than a decade in private practice and pastoral care roles. Specialising in anxiety, depression, stress, trauma, workplace bullying, addictions, relationship counselling, family/blended, mediation, child and young adults, grief and anger management. Clientele include corporate who utilise workplace EAP and NDIS clients & private clients with an age range of 6 to 85 years. Face to Face, Video-link or Phone sessions are offered. Olivia who is known for her sincere, peaceful and non-judgmental manner uses evidence based therapies recognising there is no one size fits all.
(02) 6564 1972 View (02) 6564 1972
Photo of Jess Bezik, MA, PACFA, Counsellor
Jess Bezik
Counsellor, MA, PACFA
Not Verified Not Verified
Nambucca Heads, NSW 2448
Art Therapy is my primary treatment method: a gentle and considered way to explore challenges and issues. I always speak about the 3 E's that you will encounter as we work together. AT is emergent, experiential & embodied. It is more than talk therapy alone. Through creative processes we can locate and reconsider experiences not easily put into words. I enjoy holding space to share your thoughts, feelings and future ambitions visually. As a lived experience practitioner with a history of recovery, I understand how challenging it can be to seek support, but welcome folks trying a session to see if you find my style a good fit.
Art Therapy is my primary treatment method: a gentle and considered way to explore challenges and issues. I always speak about the 3 E's that you will encounter as we work together. AT is emergent, experiential & embodied. It is more than talk therapy alone. Through creative processes we can locate and reconsider experiences not easily put into words. I enjoy holding space to share your thoughts, feelings and future ambitions visually. As a lived experience practitioner with a history of recovery, I understand how challenging it can be to seek support, but welcome folks trying a session to see if you find my style a good fit.
(02) 8261 0591 View (02) 8261 0591
Photo of Stefanie Morgan - Space Wellness (NSW) - Stef Morgan, ACA-L1, Counsellor
Space Wellness (NSW) - Stef Morgan
Counsellor, ACA-L1
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Port Macquarie, NSW 2444
Do you feel somewhat stuck? Perhaps overwhelm, physical pain or yearning for something different? Maybe you'd simply like to do better? Why not consider a coupling of counselling, clinical hypnotherapy and strategic psychotherapy? Unaware, you may be running outdated patterns which are at odds with the YOU of today, making it difficult to navigate and effect change. I use permissive Ericksonian hypnotherapy (particularly the Gordian Pillars) to uncover well-worn patterns of stuckness, then gently infuse the subconscious with alternate options. Safe, effective, gentle and life-changing.
Do you feel somewhat stuck? Perhaps overwhelm, physical pain or yearning for something different? Maybe you'd simply like to do better? Why not consider a coupling of counselling, clinical hypnotherapy and strategic psychotherapy? Unaware, you may be running outdated patterns which are at odds with the YOU of today, making it difficult to navigate and effect change. I use permissive Ericksonian hypnotherapy (particularly the Gordian Pillars) to uncover well-worn patterns of stuckness, then gently infuse the subconscious with alternate options. Safe, effective, gentle and life-changing.
(02) 5566 2525 View (02) 5566 2525
Photo of Denise Horwood - Family Life Counselling and Support Services, PACFA, Counsellor
Family Life Counselling and Support Services
Counsellor, PACFA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Inverell, NSW 2360
I believe that we can all lead meaningful and fulfilling lives, regardless of, and in spite of our circumstances, background, abilities, diagnoses or age. My aim to help you find your purpose, and uncover the significance of your life. It is a joy is to assist clients of all ages and backgrounds, on their individual and uniquely crafted journey towards new possibilities. I use a range of counselling and psychotherapy techniques including some creative therapies.
I believe that we can all lead meaningful and fulfilling lives, regardless of, and in spite of our circumstances, background, abilities, diagnoses or age. My aim to help you find your purpose, and uncover the significance of your life. It is a joy is to assist clients of all ages and backgrounds, on their individual and uniquely crafted journey towards new possibilities. I use a range of counselling and psychotherapy techniques including some creative therapies.
(02) 8188 3934 View (02) 8188 3934
Photo of Savva Emanon - Calm Mind Counselling Services, Counsellor
Calm Mind Counselling Services
Counsellor
Verified Verified
Bonville, NSW 2450
Savva at Calm Mind Counselling Services can give you the energy and the support to help you take responsibility for your life and have the courage to make the necessary changes in order to grow and develop. This is not a process that will happen overnight; it isn't a magic cure. Initially, change may seem like a frightening prospect, however, if you embrace the process and take it one step at a time you will slowly, but surely feel positive results. Counselling offers people the opportunity to increase their self-awareness and begin the journey of bringing positive change to their lives.
Savva at Calm Mind Counselling Services can give you the energy and the support to help you take responsibility for your life and have the courage to make the necessary changes in order to grow and develop. This is not a process that will happen overnight; it isn't a magic cure. Initially, change may seem like a frightening prospect, however, if you embrace the process and take it one step at a time you will slowly, but surely feel positive results. Counselling offers people the opportunity to increase their self-awareness and begin the journey of bringing positive change to their lives.
(02) 5605 3802 View (02) 5605 3802

See more therapy options for Armidale

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Armidale, NSW

< 10

Counsellors in Armidale, NSW who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
83% Trauma and PTSD
67% Parenting
67% Life Transitions
50% Relationship Issues
50% ADHD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Medicare Rebates
67% Bupa
67% Defence Health

How Counsellors in Armidale, NSW see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

60% Female
40% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Armidale?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.