Photo of Vika Shvachkina, Psychologist in 2483, NSW
Vika Shvachkina
Psychologist, MA, MAPS
Verified Verified
Ocean Shores, NSW 2483
Waitlist for new clients
I work with individuals experiencing an array of mental health issues including life transitions, loss and grief and the impact of childhood traumas to name a few. I aim to create a safe and inspiring space to facilitate healing of the heart and mind. I see my role as helping people to find their way in overcoming obstacles and creating ‘a life worth living’ in a respectful, non-judgemental and compassionate manner.
I work with individuals experiencing an array of mental health issues including life transitions, loss and grief and the impact of childhood traumas to name a few. I aim to create a safe and inspiring space to facilitate healing of the heart and mind. I see my role as helping people to find their way in overcoming obstacles and creating ‘a life worth living’ in a respectful, non-judgemental and compassionate manner.
(02) 5605 7981 View (02) 5605 7981
Photo of Elise (Sakina) Bridgeman, Psychotherapist in 2483, NSW
Elise (Sakina) Bridgeman
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified Verified
Burringbar, NSW 2483
Life presents us with unique challenges and complex emotions and can leave us feeling overwhelmed and seeking clarity. I offer support to children, adolescents, and adults experiencing a range of unique issues and concerns. If you're struggling with grief, trauma, anxiety, school issues or navigating life transitions, I am here to offer you unwavering support. Together, we will explore the various dimensions of your obstacles and find a path forward that allows you to reclaim your sense of wholeness, connection, and confidence.
Life presents us with unique challenges and complex emotions and can leave us feeling overwhelmed and seeking clarity. I offer support to children, adolescents, and adults experiencing a range of unique issues and concerns. If you're struggling with grief, trauma, anxiety, school issues or navigating life transitions, I am here to offer you unwavering support. Together, we will explore the various dimensions of your obstacles and find a path forward that allows you to reclaim your sense of wholeness, connection, and confidence.
(02) 5603 0914 View (02) 5603 0914
Photo of Gretta Hazel Bottomley, Psychologist in 2483, NSW
Gretta Hazel Bottomley
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Billinudgel, NSW 2483
Not accepting new clients
I am a warm and compassionate therapist who priorities her therapeutic relationship with clients. I believe that a collaborative, client-focused approach creates a strong foundation to work through difficult experiences, and work toward meaningful and lasting change. I have experience working with adults struggling with a range of concerns including relationship distress, parenting difficulties, difficulty coping with traumatic or stressful events and changes, mood problems, and personality disorders.
I am a warm and compassionate therapist who priorities her therapeutic relationship with clients. I believe that a collaborative, client-focused approach creates a strong foundation to work through difficult experiences, and work toward meaningful and lasting change. I have experience working with adults struggling with a range of concerns including relationship distress, parenting difficulties, difficulty coping with traumatic or stressful events and changes, mood problems, and personality disorders.
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Photo of Skye E Hudson Psychotherapy, Psychotherapist in 2483, NSW
Skye E Hudson Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MA, PACFA
Verified Verified
Ocean Shores, NSW 2483
I am an accredited psychotherapist offering face to face and online counselling. I also offer sand play, art and expressive therapies with a trauma informed lens. My work calls upon a variety of modalities such as Gestalt, Internal Family Systems, Body- Mind practices, Compassion practices and Symbol and Depth work. This integrative approach enables my clients to discover their own unique path to change and healing. I prioritise creating a safe and sturdy rapport within the therapuetic relationship as the foundation for the ongoing work of therapy. I work with individuals, adolescents and children.
I am an accredited psychotherapist offering face to face and online counselling. I also offer sand play, art and expressive therapies with a trauma informed lens. My work calls upon a variety of modalities such as Gestalt, Internal Family Systems, Body- Mind practices, Compassion practices and Symbol and Depth work. This integrative approach enables my clients to discover their own unique path to change and healing. I prioritise creating a safe and sturdy rapport within the therapuetic relationship as the foundation for the ongoing work of therapy. I work with individuals, adolescents and children.
(02) 5604 8849 View (02) 5604 8849
Photo of LifeBranches Counselling, Counsellor in 2483, NSW
LifeBranches Counselling
Counsellor, ACA-L2
Verified Verified
My counselling practice is to guide you through mentoring, to understand yourself and make decisions to enable you a fulfilling life you are searching for. Your direction, your strength is what you can achieve by seeking counselling. Being a SFT Solution Focussed Therapist, we can find answers or even better solutions for you to make in life to navigate through challenging times. Authentic and considered approaches to suit your needs with care and understanding is what I bring to my practice. My respect for honesty and kindness are drivers for the therapeutic process. Its your journey, it's my honour to be there with you
My counselling practice is to guide you through mentoring, to understand yourself and make decisions to enable you a fulfilling life you are searching for. Your direction, your strength is what you can achieve by seeking counselling. Being a SFT Solution Focussed Therapist, we can find answers or even better solutions for you to make in life to navigate through challenging times. Authentic and considered approaches to suit your needs with care and understanding is what I bring to my practice. My respect for honesty and kindness are drivers for the therapeutic process. Its your journey, it's my honour to be there with you
(02) 5633 1002 View (02) 5633 1002
Photo of Martine Baglin, Psychotherapist in 2483, NSW
Martine Baglin
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified Verified
Ocean Shores, NSW 2483
I provide a safe, supportive and nurturing space, and the sessions are tailored to address your personal life issues, needs and goals. As a Body Orientated Trauma informed Gestalt Therapist, and Senior Journey Practitioner, I enjoy assisting individuals on their unique journey to Wellness. The Therapy sessions are focused in the 'here and now' experience which holds our entire and unique history.
I provide a safe, supportive and nurturing space, and the sessions are tailored to address your personal life issues, needs and goals. As a Body Orientated Trauma informed Gestalt Therapist, and Senior Journey Practitioner, I enjoy assisting individuals on their unique journey to Wellness. The Therapy sessions are focused in the 'here and now' experience which holds our entire and unique history.
(02) 5605 6913 View (02) 5605 6913
Photo of Christina de Wit, Psychologist in 2483, NSW
Christina de Wit
Psychologist, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
Billinudgel, NSW 2483
Hi. If you are scrolling here, you might be struggling with emotional hardship and/or psychological pain in the form of anxious or depressed feelings, stress,loneliness, difficulty coping, grief, etc. I have found myself in those shoes at different times in my life; searching for someone capable and kind who would be able to support me. In my experience, it was invaluable to have a therapist who, besides being experienced and skillfull, was warm and personable and able to really meet me. I wish to offer such service for my clients. I have worked for many years in various public health roles and over 12 years in private practice.
Hi. If you are scrolling here, you might be struggling with emotional hardship and/or psychological pain in the form of anxious or depressed feelings, stress,loneliness, difficulty coping, grief, etc. I have found myself in those shoes at different times in my life; searching for someone capable and kind who would be able to support me. In my experience, it was invaluable to have a therapist who, besides being experienced and skillfull, was warm and personable and able to really meet me. I wish to offer such service for my clients. I have worked for many years in various public health roles and over 12 years in private practice.
(02) 5605 0980 View (02) 5605 0980
Photo of Carli Saber in 2483, NSW
Carli Saber
Verified Verified
Are you a mama supporting children and feeling the overwhelm, doubt and anxiety in the everyday, unsure how to support all your children? Imagine shifting into a calm, balanced parenting where you feel not only in tune with your children but yourself. I help you to understand the needs of your children based on age and stage, giving you individualised practical skills to instantly use with your children, and yourself. In my sessions, I support mums to clear projections, overwhelm and guilt so you can feel more certain, balanced and in a Happy Flowing family state.
Are you a mama supporting children and feeling the overwhelm, doubt and anxiety in the everyday, unsure how to support all your children? Imagine shifting into a calm, balanced parenting where you feel not only in tune with your children but yourself. I help you to understand the needs of your children based on age and stage, giving you individualised practical skills to instantly use with your children, and yourself. In my sessions, I support mums to clear projections, overwhelm and guilt so you can feel more certain, balanced and in a Happy Flowing family state.
(02) 5657 6519 View (02) 5657 6519
Photo of Maya Kuznik, Counsellor in 2483, NSW
Maya Kuznik
Counsellor, MA, AThR
Verified Verified
Ocean Shores, NSW 2483
As an art therapist, my clients are individuals who are seeking to improve their mental health and overall wellbeing. Whether they are adults or children, they come to me with a desire to develop healthy coping strategies and find ways to manage the challenges of everyday life. Through the creative process of art-making, I am able to guide my clients towards a deeper understanding of their emotions and thoughts, while also providing a safe and supportive space for them to explore their inner world
As an art therapist, my clients are individuals who are seeking to improve their mental health and overall wellbeing. Whether they are adults or children, they come to me with a desire to develop healthy coping strategies and find ways to manage the challenges of everyday life. Through the creative process of art-making, I am able to guide my clients towards a deeper understanding of their emotions and thoughts, while also providing a safe and supportive space for them to explore their inner world
(02) 5604 8467 View (02) 5604 8467
Photo of Lisa Toman, Psychotherapist in 2483, NSW
Lisa Toman
Psychotherapist, MA, PACFA
Verified Verified
I'm here to guide your personal growth journey. Like seeds, humans thrive in nurturing environments. I explore life's interconnectedness, enriching our well-being. Challenges are opportunities for transformation. Over the years, I've had the privilege of assisting numerous individuals in turning these challenges into sources of vitality, passion and fulfilment. Every challenge uncovers hidden potential. We'll delve deep, uncovering root causes for lasting healing and growth, allowing you to flourish authentically.
I'm here to guide your personal growth journey. Like seeds, humans thrive in nurturing environments. I explore life's interconnectedness, enriching our well-being. Challenges are opportunities for transformation. Over the years, I've had the privilege of assisting numerous individuals in turning these challenges into sources of vitality, passion and fulfilment. Every challenge uncovers hidden potential. We'll delve deep, uncovering root causes for lasting healing and growth, allowing you to flourish authentically.
(02) 5604 8040 View (02) 5604 8040
Photo of Brigid Blanckenberg, Psychologist in 2483, NSW
Brigid Blanckenberg
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Billinudgel, NSW 2483
Hi! I'm a clinical psychologist who works collaboratively with clients to build connection with values and understanding of life challenges. I draw on a range of evidence based modalities to support growth, including EMDR, Schema Therapy, DBT skills and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. I adopt an attachment focused approach to my work, which considers the impacts of childhood and developmental experiences on the beliefs we have about ourselves and our relationships with others.
Hi! I'm a clinical psychologist who works collaboratively with clients to build connection with values and understanding of life challenges. I draw on a range of evidence based modalities to support growth, including EMDR, Schema Therapy, DBT skills and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. I adopt an attachment focused approach to my work, which considers the impacts of childhood and developmental experiences on the beliefs we have about ourselves and our relationships with others.
(02) 5604 6892 View (02) 5604 6892
Photo of Uri Bookman, Counsellor in 2483, NSW
Uri Bookman
Counsellor
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Burringbar, NSW 2483
You desire to be uniquely and authentically yourself. You yearn to feel confident, empowered, and free to express yourself. You crave to be seen, heard, and understood, and to belong without any effort. You aspire to be comfortable in your own skin and free from judgment, both towards yourself and others. And above all, you dream of a world where you can love and be loved without fear. In a relationship, you strive to be a part of something bigger than yourself. You aspire to create a space of safety, respect, and growth, where intimacy and mutual understanding abound. Most importantly, you dream of a happy life, adventure and joy.
You desire to be uniquely and authentically yourself. You yearn to feel confident, empowered, and free to express yourself. You crave to be seen, heard, and understood, and to belong without any effort. You aspire to be comfortable in your own skin and free from judgment, both towards yourself and others. And above all, you dream of a world where you can love and be loved without fear. In a relationship, you strive to be a part of something bigger than yourself. You aspire to create a space of safety, respect, and growth, where intimacy and mutual understanding abound. Most importantly, you dream of a happy life, adventure and joy.
(02) 5604 6607 View (02) 5604 6607
Photo of Tania Djipalo, Psychotherapist in 2483, NSW
Tania Djipalo
Psychotherapist, MA, PACFA
Verified Verified
Ocean Shores, NSW 2483
Life offers us all challenges, sometimes huge, sometimes small, these challenges present themselves so that we may grow and in the process become wiser. I will support you to lean into your experiences rather than moving away from feelings, learning to befriend them and in the process develop a closer relationship with yourself and others. Developing emotional agility is a natural outcome of therapy that provides agency for change. Issues include parenting, relationships, depression, anxiety, life direction, addiction and trauma.
Life offers us all challenges, sometimes huge, sometimes small, these challenges present themselves so that we may grow and in the process become wiser. I will support you to lean into your experiences rather than moving away from feelings, learning to befriend them and in the process develop a closer relationship with yourself and others. Developing emotional agility is a natural outcome of therapy that provides agency for change. Issues include parenting, relationships, depression, anxiety, life direction, addiction and trauma.
(07) 5655 7533 View (07) 5655 7533
Photo of Anna Mavay Counselling and Psychotherapy , Psychotherapist in 2483, NSW
Anna Mavay Counselling and Psychotherapy
Psychotherapist, MA, ACA-L4
Verified Verified
Anna has extensive knowledge, experience and expertise in the area of mental health, trauma, relationships, neurodiversity and addiction. Anna’s approach to therapy is psychodynamic, holistic, eclectic and compassionate. Anna will gently support you to uncover unresolved feelings and issues that keep you stuck, repeating negative patterns, which can cause issues such as anxiety, depression, co-dependence, chronic worry, anger, perfectionism, eating disorders, hopelessness, difficult relationships, low self esteem, loneliness, disease and addiction. Anna also has extensive experience working with groups, couples and families.
Anna has extensive knowledge, experience and expertise in the area of mental health, trauma, relationships, neurodiversity and addiction. Anna’s approach to therapy is psychodynamic, holistic, eclectic and compassionate. Anna will gently support you to uncover unresolved feelings and issues that keep you stuck, repeating negative patterns, which can cause issues such as anxiety, depression, co-dependence, chronic worry, anger, perfectionism, eating disorders, hopelessness, difficult relationships, low self esteem, loneliness, disease and addiction. Anna also has extensive experience working with groups, couples and families.
(02) 5603 6198 View (02) 5603 6198
Photo of Gerry Bronn, Psychologist in 2483, NSW
Gerry Bronn
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA - Clin. Psych
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Ocean Shores, NSW 2483
Life is challenging and unpredictable. When life throws you a curveball - it can be helpful to have an ally. An ally to help steer you back on the path. And help you realise your best self.... My approach is warm and holistic, and I help my clients overcome life challenges, including chronic stress, anxiety, depression, trauma/loss, health issues, chronic pain, existential and spiritual crises, low self-worth, eating concerns, relationship issues, and attachment and bonding issues for parents and families.
Life is challenging and unpredictable. When life throws you a curveball - it can be helpful to have an ally. An ally to help steer you back on the path. And help you realise your best self.... My approach is warm and holistic, and I help my clients overcome life challenges, including chronic stress, anxiety, depression, trauma/loss, health issues, chronic pain, existential and spiritual crises, low self-worth, eating concerns, relationship issues, and attachment and bonding issues for parents and families.
(03) 4152 7995 View (03) 4152 7995
Photo of Will Heaton, Psychologist in 2483, NSW
Will Heaton
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
Will is a warm and compassionate psychologist who enjoys working with clients seeking to better understand themselves and create a rich, full and meaningful life. He provides a non-judgemental, compassionate and collaborative approach to treatment. Will works with a broad range of clients with diverse backgrounds and clinical presentations.
Will is a warm and compassionate psychologist who enjoys working with clients seeking to better understand themselves and create a rich, full and meaningful life. He provides a non-judgemental, compassionate and collaborative approach to treatment. Will works with a broad range of clients with diverse backgrounds and clinical presentations.
(02) 4404 0103 View (02) 4404 0103
Photo of Thirak Rochin, Counsellor in 2483, NSW
Thirak Rochin
Counsellor
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
The Pocket, NSW 2483
I see challenges as a great opportunity to know yourself and I have supported many people to face challenges in a way that transforms them into aliveness, passion, and fulfilment in life. I truly believe that every challenge, every heartbreak, every struggle is a doorway to rediscover who we truly are and unlock our true potential. Together, we will explore the depths of your being, uncover the root causes of your struggles, and pave the way for lasting healing and personal growth.
I see challenges as a great opportunity to know yourself and I have supported many people to face challenges in a way that transforms them into aliveness, passion, and fulfilment in life. I truly believe that every challenge, every heartbreak, every struggle is a doorway to rediscover who we truly are and unlock our true potential. Together, we will explore the depths of your being, uncover the root causes of your struggles, and pave the way for lasting healing and personal growth.
(02) 5605 5737 View (02) 5605 5737
Photo of Libby Tooth, Psychologist in 2483, NSW
Libby Tooth
Psychologist, MPsych, PsyBA General
Verified Verified
I am offering a unique service to mothers who are pregnant, pre and post partum (with children up to 4 years of age) who reside in the Byron Shire, Bundjalung land, Northern NSW. It is not uncommon to experience increased symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress during this powerful, transformational period of a woman's life, along with other challenges that come up as a component of the adjustment to new experiences. To enhance accessibility to quality mental health support as best we can, we come to you, in your home, to provide our service. We also offer Telehealth for further accessibility. www.mothersnaturepsychology.com.au
I am offering a unique service to mothers who are pregnant, pre and post partum (with children up to 4 years of age) who reside in the Byron Shire, Bundjalung land, Northern NSW. It is not uncommon to experience increased symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress during this powerful, transformational period of a woman's life, along with other challenges that come up as a component of the adjustment to new experiences. To enhance accessibility to quality mental health support as best we can, we come to you, in your home, to provide our service. We also offer Telehealth for further accessibility. www.mothersnaturepsychology.com.au
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Photo of Joanne Walker, Psychotherapist in 2483, NSW
Joanne Walker
Psychotherapist, MA, PACFA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Ocean Shores, NSW 2483
I have spent many years working with adults, children, families and professionals most notably those that have experienced trauma, but also addiction, grief, anxiety, emotional, relationship, parenting and other difficulties. I have spent time in indigenous communities and bring cultural awareness and sensitivity to a variety of cultural and other minority groups such as gender diverse.
I have spent many years working with adults, children, families and professionals most notably those that have experienced trauma, but also addiction, grief, anxiety, emotional, relationship, parenting and other difficulties. I have spent time in indigenous communities and bring cultural awareness and sensitivity to a variety of cultural and other minority groups such as gender diverse.
(07) 5655 7413 View (07) 5655 7413
Photo of Michael Vaccaro, Psychotherapist in 2483, NSW
Michael Vaccaro
Psychotherapist, PACFA
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Ocean Shores, NSW 2483
Hi I’m Mike. I am a men’s coach, relationship therapist, mindfulness facilitator, blogger and a podcaster. I live a stone’s throw from the beach with my partner of 10 years and my 6 year-old daughter and 1 year-old son. When I’m not in the playground, I love composing music and swimming in the river at Brunswick Heads.
Hi I’m Mike. I am a men’s coach, relationship therapist, mindfulness facilitator, blogger and a podcaster. I live a stone’s throw from the beach with my partner of 10 years and my 6 year-old daughter and 1 year-old son. When I’m not in the playground, I love composing music and swimming in the river at Brunswick Heads.
(02) 5604 0624 View (02) 5604 0624

See more therapy options for 2483

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in 2483

30+

Average cost per session

$150

Counsellors in 2483 who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
91% Self Esteem
82% Depression
76% Relationship Issues
76% Trauma and PTSD
76% Life Transitions
71% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

67% Medicare Rebates
67% NDIS
33% Other

How Counsellors in 2483 see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

73% Female
27% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in 2483?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, suburb, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Counsellors and Psychotherapists listed in the directory are members of the main professional associations, mainly the Australian Counselling Association and the Psychotherapy and Counselling Federation of Australia. Psychologists must be registered in the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA). Most Social Workers listed in the directory are members of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW).

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for social workers, psychotherapists and counsellors in Australia, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Counsellors, psychotherapists and psychologists can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and experience that enable them to do so in Australia.

Psychologists have earned a 4 year undergraduate degree in psychology and have completed a postgraduate internship or postgraduate degree. Psychotherapists generally have an undergraduate degree in a health related field in addition to 3-4 years of specialist training in psychotherapy and a period of personal psychotherapy. In order to belong to a professional organisation such as the ACA or PACFA, counsellors and psychotherapists are required to have completed a certain level of AQF qualifications and/ or an approved training course as well as clinical and supervision hours. Social Workers registered with the AASW are required to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree in Social Work from an accredited institution.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in Australia could be between $100 and $250. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

If you are struggling to access therapy due to budget constraints, you could also consider public funded mental health services. The Better Access Scheme is a government program offering Medicare rebates for mental health care. To access the program you will need to be assessed and diagnosed by your GP and get a Mental Health Plan. This will allow you to receive up to 10 individual sessions and 10 group sessions a year with practitioners who accept bulk billing, with no out of pocket costs for you.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are part of a professional organisation such as the ACA, PACFA, or the APS are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client or others or when a minor is in danger, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.