By Erik Strand, published on July 1, 2003 - last reviewed on August 18, 2005
Everyone from time to time experiences fatigue; for some it is an
almost daily struggle. Even the sunniest disposition can cloud over when
fatigue sets in: it can be a serious drag on your mood.
Broadly speaking, fatigue is simply mental or physical exhaustion.
In many ways it is a normal phenomenon, a process that slows the body
down at the end of the day and prepares us for sleep, or protects
overworked muscles from possible injury. Too often however, fatigue is a
negative force in our lives: at best an inconvenience, and at worst
completely debilitating. Fortunately, though the exact science behind
fatigue is in many ways poorly understood, there are some simple dietary
changes we can make to help keep fatigue from getting us down.
Drink plenty of water. We've all been told a thousand
times, but a lot of us still don't get enough H20 during the day. Mild
dehydration is a common and often overlooked cause of fatigue.
Dehydration can reduce blood volume and diminish blood flow to the
organs, slowing down your brain -- and you along with it. Drink about 8
glasses of water a day, and don't wait until you're thirsty.
Eat breakfast. The brain is a fuel-hungry organ,
using up to 30 percent of the day's calories. A good breakfast is
important for refilling our energy stores, keeping lethargy at bay during
the morning hours. This is especially true for children, who have a
higher metabolism and naturally smaller energy reserves. Be sure to
include carbohydrates at breakfast time. A whole grain muffin with peanut
butter, a piece of fruit, and a glass of skim milk makes a good start to
Eat protein and carbs in combination, especially at
lunch. It's not your imagination: that drowsy, dopey feeling
you get around 4pm is part of your brain's natural daily rhythms. Dr.
Judith Wurtman, a pioneering food researcher at MIT, recommends eating
carbohydrates and protein in tandem at lunchtime to fight the afternoon
doldrums. Protein contains the amino acid tryptophan, precursor of
serotonin, a neurotransmitter that promotes a calm, relaxed feeling,
which helps to fight emotional fatigue. Eaten in combination with
protein, carbohydrates may boost the brain's intake of tryptophan.
Protein rich foods also contain tyrosine, a precursor to the
neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, promoters of alertness,
attention, and motivation.
"There's one group of people who are especially susceptible to late
afternoon fatigue," says Wurtman, "and they're called 'women.'" Women
often choose skimpy salads for their midday meal, leaving them at a loss
for the nutrients they need. Opt instead for the fatigue-fighting team of
lean protein sources and unrefined carbohydrates to elevate both energy
Use caffeine judiciously. Caffeinated beverages are
one of the best ways to fight fatigue. Caffeine not only makes you feel
more energized, it also increases alertness, reaction times, and ability
to think clearly for up to three hours. Dr. Harris Lieberman, research
psychologist for the US Army, reports that even if you're already rested,
a single can of cola can produce improved results on tests of vigilance --
the ability to pay attention to a boring task for a long period of time.
"But," he cautions, "If you're drinking 5 or 6 cups of coffee a day,
that's probably too much." Too much caffeine can make you irritable and
jittery, actually decreasing your performance on some tasks; caffeine too
late in the day can cause insomnia. In some people, overuse of caffeine
is associated with withdrawal symptoms like headaches. If caffeine's your
thing, try a single cup in the morning, and a Diet Coke with
Get enough calories, but avoid big meals. While
overeating is a serious problem for many folks (and can itself lead to
fatigue), if you're an intensely active person or you're on a stringent
diet, you may not be getting enough calories during the day. Everyone's
needs vary: take care to consume enough calories for your gender, body
type, and activity level. High-intensity exercisers should be especially
sure to get enough protein.
Don't, however, take in all your calories in one or two daily
feasts. Instead, eat five or six smaller meals during the day. To aid
digestion, a full stomach draws blood to the belly and away from the
brain, leaving you listless and less alert. Smaller meals also help to
keep your insulin level more constant, avoiding the fluctuations of
energy and mood associated with insulin swings.
Eat iron-rich foods. Iron enables blood to carry
oxygen to the organs of the body. Deprived of adequate oxygen, the brain
cannot function optimally, leading to lack of mental acuity and feelings
of fatigue. Iron intake is not in general a problem for men, but it is
not uncommon for women to have mild iron deficiency. If you suspect
you're not getting enough iron, boost your intake with foods like lean
red meat, liver, spinach, and apricots.