The New Age of Innocence

Presents information on books about losing innocence. 'Saving Childhood: Protecting Our Children From the National Assault on Innocence,' by Michael and Diane Medved; 'A Return to Modesty: Discovering the Lost Virtue,' by Wendy Shalit; 'A Return to Innocence: Philosophical Guide in an Age of Cynicism,' by Jeffrey Schwartz.

By Annie Murphy Paul, published on March 1, 1999 - last reviewed on June 9, 2016

A rash of new books is urging a rebirth of humility and decorum. No
one woulddeny that our culture has become crass and vulgar, but these
books have another, more insidious message: they equate innocence with

KEEPING WATCH OVER YOUR KIDS' innocence is no easy task. Just ask
Michael and Diane Medved, authors of Saving Childhood: Protecting Our
Children From the National Assault on Innocence (Harper Collins, 1998).
It's not enough to ban television from your home, as the Medveds have, to
limit videos to six G-rated hours a week, to carefully screen prospective
playmates. Threats to your children's blissful ignorance can still sneak
past: a Girl Scout manual contains references to sex. A Judy Blume novel,
recommended by a kindly librarian, mentions menstruation. Classmates let
slip the names of the Spice Girls.

Fortunately for the Medveds, their offspring have joined in the
effort to preserve their naivete. Should the news come on during the
family's Sunday drives, the proud parents recount, "our children
immediately beg us to turn off the radio, lest they hear something" that
"spoils their contentment." And when a haunting song from the soundtrack
of Showboat! plays on the stereo, their daughters scream "Fast forward!
Fast forward!" because "they wouldn't even consider hearing lyrics that
predict sadness or trouble on the horizon."

The Medveds' efforts to safeguard their children's tender
sensibilities border on the fanatical (they have forbidden their eldest
daughter to read any books published after 1960). But it's hard not to
sympathize with their concerns. If innocence is not quite under assault,
it has been treated none too gently by the late twentieth century, with
its bruising rounds of sex and violence, cynicism and corruption. Our
appalled fascination with schoolboy murderers and tiny beauty queens has
its source in the fear that childhood's magic has faded, replaced by
something harder and harsher.

But beneath our worries about a younger generation lies an unspoken
uneasiness about our own. Perilous as the modern age is for children, it
has been every bit as unsparing of the illusions of adults. Grown-up
fairy tales--that marriage will last forever, that sex produces only
pleasure, that loyalty to an institution will be returned, that elected
leaders are benevolent and wise--have taken a darker turn, shading into
stories of divorce and AIDS and single motherhood, mergers and layoffs
and low-wage workers, Watergate and Iran-Contra and now,

THE LAST FEW DECADES HAVE BEEN specially unkind to the illusions of
women. Wendy Shalit, a young neo-conservative writer, bitterly laments
the passing of an era when daughters belonged to their fathers ("what is
really so terrible about `belonging' to someone who loves you?" she
asks), when girls waited for their one true love, when sex was an
enchanting mystery. Writes the 23-year-old Shalit in A Return to Modesty:
Discovering the Lost Virtue (Free Press, 1999), "Our mothers tell us we
shouldn't want to give up all the hard-won `gains' they have bequeathed
us, and we think: What gains? Sexual harassment, date rape, stalking,
eating disorders, all these dreary hook-ups? Or perhaps it's the great
gain of divorce you had in mind?"

Her caustic appraisal of modern adulthood is echoed by the Medveds,
who insist that "the secrets of adulthood are harsh, morbid, oppressive,
and seamy," bringing nothing but "obligations, troubles, burdens and the
potential for depression and gloom." Already spoiled by such secrets,
they can only enjoy the vicarious pleasure of postponing their children's
inevitable disillusionment.

But Shalit sees another way. Believing that most young women's
problems--from depression to eating disorders to unsatisfying
relationships--follow from our culture's corruption of their natural
modesty and purity, she urges them to reclaim their innocence, to "take
it all back." Another voice in this chores, UCLA psychiatrist Jeffrey
Schwartz, goes further: he writes in A Return to Innocence: Philosophical
Guidance in an Age of Cynicism (Harper Collins, 1998) that every adult
ought to aspire to innocence, as it is "the highest of human
accomplishments" and "the defining mark of those who have achieved
genuine victory in facing life's innumerable challenges."

INNOCENCE WASN'T ALWAYS SO ELUSIVE, these authors argue. America
was once a veritable Garden of Eden, a place where "women enjoyed being
home for the kids" and "peers came over for basketball in the driveway
and homemade lemonade," say the Medveds; where "men respected all women
as ladies," according to Shalit, and mothers devoted themselves to "the
family, volunteer work, religion, shaping the hearts and minds of the
next generation."

Then the country took its first fateful bite of the apple,
initiating what Schwartz calls the "orgy of self-gratification" that was
the 1960s. "As a result of the destructive behavior unleashed by a
mindless belief in bad ideas, we live in a society that has lost its
innocence," he writes, "and that is no longer protect the
innocence of its young."

While the serpent in the garden assumes a variety of wily disguises
in these books, he sounds like the same creature: for Schwartz, it's the
"intellectual/power elite"; for the Medveds, the "Hollywood elite"; and
for Shalit, the "elite white feminists." Artfully seducing the public
with promises of effortless pleasure and fulfillment, these evil spirits
have held America in their thrall ever since--and only innocence can lift
the spell.

SCHWARTZ SETS OUT TO RECOVER our lost innocence with an
eclectic--not to say eccentric--combination of Buddhist spirituality,
ancient philosophy, Biblical allegory and modern-day neuroscience. In a
series of letters to a friend's 16-year-old son, he describes in dramatic
and even apocalyptic terms the dangers of our drug-addled, sex-obsessed,
morally lax and spiritually bankrupt society. The only escape from this
modern-day Sodom and Gomorrah, says Schwartz, is through a return to
innocence--which, he reminds us, originally meant "not harming." In a
culture as sick as ours, he suggests, not harming may be the best we can

Radio talk-show host Michael Medved and his wife Diane, a
psychologist, present an equally grim picture of American society (so
grim, in fact, that they've surely prohibited their children from reading
it). Music and the movies, television and the Internet, sex ed in the
schools and oral sex in the news all conspire to deprive American youth
of a "classically carefree childhood." Their response is to raise their
daughters and son in a bubble, sealed off from the culture's
contaminants. Though the Medveds' concern for their children is clearly
genuine, such overprotectiveness Seems also to satisfy some need of their
own: they're making their children monuments to the innocence they've

Second-hand innocence isn't good enough for Shalit. She wants the
real thing, for herself and for other young women who feel compromised by
our coarsened culture. Drawing on personal anecdotes and pop culture
references, Shalit deplores modern indignities both small and large, from
co-ed bathrooms to sexual harassment, and tells us that "modesty is our
way out." She has the odd notion that if we close our eyes and wish hard,
we can will our innocence back into being, forget what we know, undo
what's been done. She wants a second sexual revolution that will reverse
the results of the first.

Those who remember the 1994 film Forrest Gump and its phenomenal
success will not be surprised to find innocence's reputation as pristine
as ever. The movie charmed audiences with its story of a simple-minded
but sweet man who stumbled innocently (and very, very luckily) through
life. Then as now, we find the notion of an adult unversed in the ways of
the world deeply appealing. But why? Why celebrate what is effectively a
lack--in the case of children, a lovely and delightful lack, but an
absence all the same?

Because, its proponents might say, it's an absence that affords
breathing space, a lack that leaves room to think. Innocence offers an
escape from the insistent pressures of the information age and all its
unwelcome news. Twenty-four-hour cable on 200 stations, the
ever-expanding Internet, reporting that revels in scandal, one movie more
explicit than the last: our time's tree of knowledge is so heavy with
apples that we've grown sick of tasting them.

NOW THAT WE have no choice but to know about war in Bosnia, famine
in the Sudan, hurricanes in Honduras, it's no wonder that we envy the
infant who knows only his blanket, his own foot, his mother's breast. Now
that we're adrift in the ether of signs and symbols, it's no wonder that
we cling to the confines of the nursery. In our alarmed houses, in our
gated communities, the only thing Americans can't keep out is
information. V-chips and Internet filters are fig leaves that can't cover
our new nakedness, our vulnerability to the ubiquity of electronic

And so, innocence has come to tempt us more than knowledge. But
it's a dangerous seduction, and one we should resist. Intentional
innocence is a renunciation of the chief responsibility--and the chief
pleasure--of adult life: to know, to experience, to apprehend the world
in all its glory and its horror. Knowledge is potent stuff; that's why we
keep it away from small children. And it's why we must keep some of it
for ourselves. In careless or unscrupulous hands, knowledge is dangerous,
and the innocent are powerless to oppose it.

Women are especially wary of innocence, or ought to be. When Wendy
Shalit traces higher rates of rape to the cultural moment "when we
decided to let it all hang out," she mistakes the acknowledgment of rape
for its occurrence, and chooses the illusory security of ignorance over
the equivocal rewards of reality. Women who reject the innocence that has
often been expected of their sex will forfeit the right, as Clarence
Darrow told the jury in the Scopes "monkey trial," "to retreat behind
their powder puffs." But they will gain a field of vision free from the
modern equivalents of powder puffs and parasols and downcast

Perhaps the best argument against a willful innocence is that it
won't work, anyway. The steady seep of electronic information will not
stop. Hollywood will not bring back chaste kisses and twin beds.
Reporters will not withhold the fact that a President has polio, or
affairs. Knowledge, often of an unsavory or unsettling sort, will be our
constant companion in the next century, and we had better begin to get

Our first task is to teach it its place. It's an adult art, knowing
how to place one fact next to another, draw connections and comparisons,
attend to this reality and not that one, cast a skeptical eye on some
claims to truth while embracing others with whole-hearted faith. What we
call wisdom is just this intelligent and discriminating relationship to
knowledge, a relationship that has its profound joys as well as its
occasional burdens. Children taught this truth may come to regard
adulthood not with anxiety, but with eager anticipation--to which we can
say, wisely: wait 'til you're older.