Depression, even the most severe cases, is a highly treatable disorder. As with many illnesses, the earlier that treatment can begin, the more effective it is and the greater the likelihood that recurrence can be prevented.
Appropriate treatment for depression starts with a physical examination by a physician. Certain medications, as well as some medical conditions such as viral infections or a thyroid disorder, can cause the same symptoms as depression, and the physician should rule out these possibilities through examination, interview and lab tests. If a physical cause for the depression is ruled out, a psychological evaluation that includes a mental status exam should be done either by the physician or by referral to a mental health professional.
He or she should discuss any family history of depression including their treatment, and get a complete history of symptoms, such as when they started, how long they have lasted, how severe they are, whether the patient had them before. And if so, whether the symptoms were treated and what treatment was given. The doctor should ask about alcohol and drug use, and if the patient has thoughts about death or suicide.
Once diagnosed, a person with depression can be treated with a number of methods. The most common treatments are medication and psychotherapy.
Antidepressants work to normalize naturally occurring brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, notably serotonin and norepinephrine. Other antidepressants work on the neurotransmitter dopamine.
The newest and most popular medications are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), citalopram (Celexa), sertraline (Zoloft) and several others. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are similar to SSRIs and include venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta). SSRIs and SNRIs are more popular than the older classes of antidepressants, such as tricyclics—named for their chemical structure—and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) because they tend to have fewer side effects. However, medications affect everyone differently so "no one-size-fits-all" approach to medication exists. Therefore, for some people, tricyclics or MAOIs may be the best choice.
People taking MAOIs must adhere to significant food and medicinal restrictions to avoid potentially serious interactions. They must avoid certain foods that contain high levels of the chemical tyramine, which is found in many cheeses, wines and pickles, and some medications including decongestants. MAOIs interact with tyramine in such a way that may cause a sharp increase in blood pressure, which could lead to a stroke. A doctor should give a patient taking an MAOI a complete list of prohibited foods, medicines and substances.
For all classes of antidepressants, patients must take regular doses for at least three to four weeks before they are likely to experience a full therapeutic effect. They should continue taking the medication for the time specified by their doctor, even if they are feeling better, in order to prevent a relapse of the depression. Medication should be stopped only under a doctor's supervision. Some medications need to be gradually stopped to give the body time to adjust. Although antidepressants are not habit-forming or addictive, abruptly ending an antidepressant can cause withdrawal symptoms or lead to a relapse. Some individuals, such as those with chronic or recurrent depression, may need to stay on the medication indefinitely.
In addition, if one medication does not work, the doctor may switch to another medication and patients should be open to trying another. NIMH-funded research has shown that patients who did not improve after taking a first medication increased their chances of becoming symptom-free after they switched to a different medication or added another medication to their existing one.
Sometimes stimulants, anti-anxiety medications, or other medications are used in conjunction with an antidepressant, especially if the patient has a co-existing mental or physical disorder. However, neither anti-anxiety medications nor stimulants are effective against depression when taken alone, and both should be taken only under a doctor's close supervision.
Medications of any kind—prescribed, over-the-counter or borrowed—should never be mixed without consulting the doctor. All health professionals who are working with the patient should be told of all the medications that are being taken. Some drugs, though safe when taken alone, can cause severe and dangerous side effects if taken with others. Some drugs, like alcohol or street drugs, may reduce the effectiveness of antidepressants and should be avoided.
Despite the relative safety and popularity of SSRIs and other antidepressants, some studies have suggested that they may have unintentional effects on some people, especially adolescents and young adults. Based on the FDA's thorough review of published and unpublished controlled clinical trials of antidepressants of nearly 4,400 children and adolescents, the FDA was prompted, in 2005, to adopt a "black box" warning label on all antidepressant medications to alert the public about the potential increased risk of suicidal thinking or attempts in children and adolescents taking antidepressants. In 2007, the FDA proposed that makers of all antidepressant medications extend the warning to include young adults up through age 24. A "black box" warning is the most serious type of warning on prescription drug labeling.
Questions about any antidepressant prescribed, or problems that may be related to the medication, should be discussed with the doctor.
Antidepressants may cause mild and, usually, temporary side effects (sometimes referred to as adverse effects) in some people. Typically these are annoying, but not serious. However, any unusual reactions or side effects or those that interfere with functioning should be reported to the doctor immediately. The most common side effects of tricyclic antidepressants, and ways to deal with them, are:
- Dry mouth—it is helpful to drink sips of water, chew sugarless gum and clean teeth daily.
- Constipation—eat bran cereals, prunes, fruit and vegetables.
- Bladder problems—emptying the bladder may be troublesome, and the urine stream may not be as strong as usual; the doctor should be notified if there is marked difficulty or pain.
- Sexual problems—sexual functioning may change; if worrisome, discuss with the doctor.
- Blurred vision—this will pass soon and will not usually necessitate new glasses.
- Dizziness—rising from the bed or chair slowly is helpful.
- Drowsiness as a daytime problem—this usually passes soon. A person feeling drowsy or sedated should not drive or operate heavy equipment. The more sedating antidepressants are generally taken at bedtime to help sleep and minimize daytime drowsiness.
The most common side effects associated with SSRIs and SNRIs include:
- Headache—this usually goes away.
- Nausea—this is also temporary, but even when it occurs, it is transient after each dose.
- Nervousness and insomnia (trouble falling asleep or waking often during the night)—these may occur during the first few weeks; dosage reductions or time will usually resolve them.
- Agitation (feeling jittery)—if this happens for the first time after the drug is taken and is more than transient, the doctor should be notified.
- Sexual problems—the doctor should be consulted if the problem is persistent or worrisome.
In the past few years, there has been much interest in the use of herbs in the treatment of both depression and anxiety. St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), an herb used extensively in the treatment of mild to moderate depression in Europe, has aroused interest in the United States. St. John's Wort, an attractive bushy, low-growing plant covered with yellow flowers in summer, has been used for centuries in many folk and herbal remedies.
Because of the widespread interest in St. John's Wort, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a three-year study, sponsored by three NIH components—the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and the Office of Dietary Supplements. The study was designed to include 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity, randomly assigned to an eight-week trial. One third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's Wort; another third, sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression; and the final third, a placebo (a pill that looks exactly like the SSRI and St. John's Wort, but has no active ingredients). The trial found that St. John's wort was no more effective than the placebo in treating major depression.
A late 2008 German study reviewed and analyzed previous studies on St. John's Wort in the treatment of mild or minor depression. Their results indicated that the herbal remedy was effective and study participants experienced fewer side effects. Yet the researchers issued some caveats regarding their findings. First, the St. John's Wort that is available on the market varies widely so their results are only applicable to the preptions tested. Secondly, they cautioned against using the remedy without medical advice because St. John's Wort can affect the effectiveness of other drugs.
In February 2000, the Food and Drug Administration had issued a Public Health Advisory, stating that St. John's Wort appears to interfere with certain drugs prescribed to treat conditions such as AIDS, heart disease, depression, seizures, certain cancers and organ transplant rejection. The herb also may interfere with the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Because of these potential interactions, patients should always consult with their doctors before taking any herbal supplement.
Many forms of psychotherapy, including some short-term (10- to 20-week) and other regimens are longer-term, depending on the needs of the individual. Two main types of psychotherapies—cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT)—have been shown to be effective in treating depression. By teaching new ways of thinking and behaving, CBT helps people change negative styles of thinking and behaving that may contribute to their depression. IPT helps people understand and work through troubled personal relationships that may cause their depression or make it worse.
For mild to moderate depression, psychotherapy may be the best treatment option. However, for major depression or for certain people, psychotherapy may not be enough. Studies have indicated that for adolescents, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the most effective approach to treating major depression and reducing the likelihood for recurrence. Similarly, a study examining depression treatment among older adults found that patients who responded to initial treatment of medication and IPT were less likely to have recurring depression if they continued their combination treatment for at least two years.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is useful, particularly for individuals whose depression is severe or life threatening, or for those who cannot take antidepressant medication. ECT often is effective in cases where antidepressant medications do not provide sufficient relief of symptoms. In recent years, ECT has been much improved. A muscle relaxant is given before treatment, which is done under brief anesthesia. Electrodes are placed at precise locations on the head to deliver electrical impulses. The stimulation causes a brief (about 30 seconds) seizure within the brain. The person receiving ECT does not consciously experience the electrical stimulus. For full therapeutic benefit, at least several sessions of ECT, typically given at the rate of three per week, are required.
How to Help Yourself If You Are Depressed
Depressive disorders can make a person feel exhausted, worthless, helpless and hopeless. Such negative thoughts and feelings make some people feel like giving up. It is important to realize that these negative views are part of the depression and typically do not reflect actual circumstances. Negative thinking fades as treatment begins to take effect. In the meantime:
- Set realistic goals in light of the depression and assume a reasonable amount of responsibility.
- Break large tasks into small ones, set some priorities and do what you can, as you can.
- Try to be with other people and to confide in someone; it is usually better than being alone and secretive.
- Participate in activities that may make you feel better.
- Mild exercise, going to a movie or a ball game, or participating in religious, social or other activities may also help.
- Expect your mood to improve gradually, not immediately; feeling better takes time.
- It is advisable to postpone important decisions until the depression has lifted. Before deciding to make a significant transition—change jobs, get married or divorce—discuss it with others who know you well and have a more objective view of your situation.
- People rarely "snap out of" a depression. But they can feel a little better day by day.
- Remember, positive thinking will replace the negative thinking that is part of the depression, and this negative thinking will disappear as your depression responds to treatment.
- Let your family and friends help you.
How Family and Friends Can Help the Depressed Person
If you know someone who is depressed, it affects you too. The most important thing anyone can do for the depressed person is to help him or her get an appropriate diagnosis and treatment. You may need to make an appointment on behalf of your friend or relative and go with her to see the doctor. Encourage him to stay in treatment, or to seek different treatment if no improvement occurs after six to eight weeks.
The second most important thing is to offer emotional support. This involves understanding, patience, affection and encouragement. Engage the depressed person in conversation and listen carefully. Do not dispge feelings expressed, but point out realities and offer hope. Do not ignore remarks about suicide. Report them to the depressed person's therapist. Invite the depressed person for walks, outings, to the movies and other activities. Keep trying if he declines, but don't push her to take on too much too soon. Although diversions and company are needed, too many demands may increase feelings of failure. Remind your friend or relative that with time and treatment, the depression will lift.
Depressive Disorders. Last reviewed 12/31/1969
- Medscape Women's Health Depression
- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
- Archives of Internal Medicine
- Psychopharmacology Bulletin
- Journal of the American Medical Association
- National Institute of Mental Health
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
- Biological Psychiatry
- Altshuler LL, Hendrich V, Cohen LS. Course of mood and anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 1998; 59: 29.
- Rohan KJ, Lindsey KT, Roecklein KA, Lacy TJ. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy and their combination in treating seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2004; 80: 273-283.
- Tsuang MT, Faraone SV. The genetics of mood disorders. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.
- Tsuang MT, Bar JL, Stone WS, Faraone SV. Gene-environment interactions in mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 2004 June; 3(2): 73-83.
- Schmidt PJ, Nieman LK, Danaceau MA, Adams LF, Rubinow DR. Differential behavioral effects of gonadal steroids in women with and in those without premenstrual syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 1998 Jan 22; 338(4): 209-216
- Dreher JC, Schmidt PJ, Kohn P, Furman D, Rubinow D, Berman KF. Menstrual cycle phase modulates reward-related neural function in women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007 Feb 13; 104(7): 2465-2470.
- Pollack W. Mourning, melancholia, and masculinity: recognizing and treating depression in men. In: Pollack W, Levant R, eds. New Psychotherapy for Men. New York: Wiley, 1998; 147 66.
- Cochran SV, Rabinowitz FE. Men and depression: clinical and empirical perspectives. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000.
- Gallo JJ, Rabins PV. Depression without sadness: alternative presentations of depression in late life. American Family Physician, 1999; 60(3): 820-826.
- Reynolds CF III, Dew MA, Pollock BG, Mulsant BH, Frank E, Miller MD, Houck PR, Mazumdar S, Butters MA, Stack JA, Schlernitzauer MA, Whyte EM, Gildengers A, Karp J, Lenze E, Szanto K, Bensasi S, Kupfer DJ. Maintenance treatment of major depression in old age. New England Journal of Medicine, 2006 Mar 16; 354(11): 1130-1138.
- Rush JA, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Stewart JW, Nierenberg AA, Thase ME, Ritz L, Biggs MM, Warden D, Luther JF, Shores-Wilson K, Niederehe G, Fava M. Bupropion-SR, Sertraline, or Venlafaxine-XR after failure of SSRIs for depression. New England Journal of Medicine, 2006 Mar 23; 354(12): 1231-1242.
- Trivedi MH, Fava M, Wisniewski SR, Thase ME, Quitkin F, Warden D, Ritz L, Nierenberg AA, Lebowitz BD, Biggs MM, Luther JF, Shores-Wilson K, Rush JA. Medication augmentation after the failure of SSRIs for depression. New England Journal of Medicine, 2006 Mar 23; 354(12): 1243-1252.