Your Brain on Food

How chemicals control your thoughts and feelings.

Is CBD Better Than THC?

Why are people so excited about Cannabidiol (CBD)? Why are growers breeding marijuana plants with significantly higher levels of CBD? The answer lies in unpacking a series of complex truths, making distinctions between what is known and what is not known, and dispelling some false claims. Read More

Too many errors to take seriously

Your article states that the THC content of marijuana is 2-5%, but that has not been true since the 1990s. Here is a quote from an article looking at THC content is seized marijuana (Italy):

"Delta 9 THC content of marijuana samples goes from an average of 2.5% in 1997 to 15% in 2004." (Licata, Verri, and Beduschi, 2005, Ann Ist Super Sanità)

Furthermore, there are at least 85 identified cannabinoids in marijuana, exhibiting various effects. (El-Alfy, et al, 2010, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior)

There are MANY clinical trials of CBD, some very rigorous. Here are only a few.

1. By Elisaldo A. Carlini, M.D., and Jomar M. Cunha, M.D. (1981). Hypnotic And Antiepileptic Effects Of Cannabidiol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 21: 417S-427S.

2. Iuvone, Esposito, Esposito, Santamaria, Di Rosa, & Izzo. (2004, Apr). Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on β-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Journal of Neurochemistry; 89(1): 134-141.

3. Bhattacharyya, et al. (2010). Opposite Effects of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function and Psychopathology. Neuropsychopharmacology; 35: 764–774.

4. Ligresti, et al. (2006, Sep). Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Treatments; 318(3): 1375-1387.

5. Zuardi, Crippa, Hallak, Moreira, & Guimarães. (2006, Apr). Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research; 39(4): 421-429.

Try to get YOUR facts straight before commenting.

I rarely choose to address comments to individuals who lack scientific training, but given the effort this person expended in their response I felt that it was necessary to respond. First, I firmly believe that extracts from the marijuana plant will one day be used extensively for a variety of disorders of health of the body and mind. However, the point of this blog was to emphasize that we do not currently have the data to support using CBD over THC. The comments of Mr. Harryman do not offer evidence that would alter this conclusion.

With regard to the statements made:
Your article states that the THC content of marijuana is 2-5%, but that has not been true since the 1990s. Here is a quote from an article looking at THC content is seized marijuana (Italy): /"Delta 9 THC content of marijuana samples goes from an average of 2.5% in 1997 to 15% in 2004." (Licata, Verri, and Beduschi, 2005, Ann Ist Super Sanità)/

THIS STATEMENT IS NOT ACCURATE FOR THE US: ACCORDING TO THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, BETWEEN 1972 AND 2008 THE THC CONTENT IN SEIZED SAMPLES HAS VARIED ONLY BETWEEN 3.4% AND 8.14%.

You state that “There are MANY clinical trials of CBD, some very rigorous. Here are only a few.”

IN FACT, THESE REFERENCES HAVE MANY FLAWS AND ONLY ONE OF THEM IS A CLINICAL TRIAL AND IT IS FAR FROM RIGOROUS.

1. By Elisaldo A. Carlini, M.D., and Jomar M. Cunha, M.D. (1981). Hypnotic And Antiepileptic Effects Of Cannabidiol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology;
21: 417S-427S.
THIS PAPER IS TOO OLD TO ACCESS ON MEDLINE AND ELISALDO IS NOT THE FIRST AUTHOR.
2. Iuvone, Esposito, Esposito, Santamaria, Di Rosa, & Izzo. (2004, Apr).
Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on β-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Journal of Neurochemistry; 89(1): 134-141.

THIS IS A CELL CULTURE STUDY, NOT A CLINICAL TRIAL. ALSO, IT DOES NOT COMPARE THC WITH CBD AND IS NOT RELEVANT TO THE ISSUE.

3. Bhattacharyya, et al. (2010). Opposite Effects of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function and Psychopathology. Neuropsychopharmacology; 35: 764–774.

THIS REPORT IS NOT A CLINICAL TRIAL EITHER BUT RATHER A SIMPLE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF FMRI SIGNALS FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION.

4. Ligresti, et al. (2006, Sep). Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Treatments; 318(3): 1375-1387.

I COULD FIND NO EVIDENCE THAT THIS JOURNAL EVEN EXISTS.

5. Zuardi, Crippa, Hallak, Moreira, & Guimarães. (2006, Apr). Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research; 39(4): 421-429.

THIS IS THE ONLY TRUE CLINICAL TRIAL; UNFORTUNATELY IT WAS PUBLISHED IN MINOR JOURNAL THAT HAS AN IMPACT FACTOR OF 1, WHICH MEANS THAT NO ONE READS IT. THE STUDY DID NOT CONTROL FOR PRIOR DRUG USE AND THERE WAS A VERY LIMITED NUMBER OF SUBJECTS. ALSO, THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP WAS SCHIZOPHRENICS. A MORE RECENT PUBLICATION BY ALMEIDA ET AL., 2013, STATED THAT “OUR RESULTS DO NOT SUPPORT AN ANTIPSYCHOTIC PROPERTY OF CANNABIDIOL…”

The FEDERAL medicinal

The FEDERAL medicinal marijuana research says plants witha minimum content of 0.87% CANNABIDIOL is free from the negative effects produced by Tetrahydrocannabinol like the common paranoia and anxiety experience, but this is important because prolonged use of improperly grown cannabis can lead to THC- induced Psychosis, you would have to smoke or ingest bad bud everyday in high volumes for like a year or more though.

Clinical trials for elderly with memory loss using cannabis, cannabiniods, as well as other drugs.

Hello, I was wondering if you could refer me to clinical trials with cannabis, cannabiniods, as well as other drugs showing positive results reversing memory loss in elderly patients?
My mother is 81 and suffers from some memeory loss. About two years ago she may have suffered a slight stroke, although a brain scan about three weeks later showed no damadge, she has had increased memory loss since and had some prior as well. Although she has not been dianosed with Alzheimers she does demonstrate some of the symptoms. She also is taking medication for high blood pressure and high cholesterol. She lives in the Seattle area and has gotten a medical cannabis card a year ago. Having only used cannabis on one or two occasions 35 years ago, drank alcohol occasionally prior to 30 years ago, and smoked less than a pack of cigarettes as a teenager. Since getting the medical cannabis card she has eaten cannabis products on several occasions, but not daily. She has also been taking a variety of herbal supplements and we have changed her diet some to try to improve her health and memory. We are considering daily juicing of cannabis also as a treatment for memory. We have talked about getting her into a clinical trial and would like to know if you have any info on clinical trials for cannabis, cannabidiods, or other drugs that may help reverse memory loss. Thank you, Mike Hudson

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Gary L. Wenk, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience & Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics at the Ohio State University.

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