Bahasa Indonesia: Ini adalah ilustrasi abstrak menggambarkan individu dengan gangguan identitas disosiatif. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
I have written in past about the basic structure of emotions and identified eight basic emotions- four of them paired together viz. Fear-Disgust; Sadness-Anger; Joy- Love/Attentiveness and Interest-surprise. I have also tried to carve psychopathology at its joints, and come up with a psychological disorders taxonomy that places all major psychological disorders on eight dimensions/ clusters (2 internalizing clusters; 2 externalising clusters and 2 what I then named- relational clusters and 2 what I then named reality-distortion cluster.
Further reading and thinking has made me realize that I can synthesize both basic emotions framework and psychopathology taxonomy/clusters into one comprehensive theory that also makes one realize the underlying emotional issues involved in major psychopathologies and may shed light on treatment and prevention. In my next post I will correlate the framework I develop here with NIMH’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) extensively.
First let me list the basic emotions in some particular order (I believe that these emotions evolved/ differentiated along this order and this is evident in how these emotions become differentiated in ontogeny in infants’ facial expressions.
- Interest (excitement)
- Love (attentiveness)
Now let me delineate the eight major clusters of psychopathology:
- Fear - Anxiety cluster: (Phobia, panic disorder etc)
- Distress – Depression cluster : ( Major depression (MDD), Generalized Anxiety (GAD), PTSD etc)
- Anger- Impulsive Non-Conformity : ( Conduct disorder, anti-social disorder, Oppositional defiant disorder etc)
- Disgust – Dependence/ Addiction : ( ADHD, substance abuse, addiction etc)
- Interest- Obsessive/Compulsive : (Obsessive compulsive disorder, pathological gambling etc)
- Joy- Mania: (Bipolar disorder, dark triad ( Psychopathic, Narcissistic, Machiavellian) )
- Love- Delusions (magical thinking/ suggestibility) : (Psychosis , schizophrenia, hypnotic trance)
- Surprise- Dissociation/paranoia: (Dissociative identity disorder (DID), Depersonalisation, derealisation, amnesia, autism etc)
The first 2 clusters are the internalizing disorders (internal emotion-laden problems) ; the next 2 clusters are externalizing disorders (exhibited in outward behaviours) ; the next 2 are motivational disorder clusters in which the motivation system goes for a toss; and the last 2 are cognitive disorder clusters where thinking, memory etc cognitive processes go for a toss.
How does this relate to DSM-V vs ICD-11 vs RDoC controversy. I believe NIMH RDoC is on the right path: they have identified 5 domains: -ve valance system (mapping to my Internalizing disorders clusters) ; +ve valance system (mapping to my Motivational disorders clusters); Systems for Social processes (mapping to my Externalizing disorders) and Congitive systems (mapping to my cognitive disorder clusters) .
In the next post, I will elaborate, how the low-level constructs defined within each RDoC domain correspond to each other and map neatly to my psychopathology/ emotions clusters.