Emerging Diseases

Patients at the crossroads of new diseases and chronic ills.

An infection can change your personality --there's plenty of proof

Infections can alter behavior --here's the proof.

In the past couple of weeks I've posted about the debate over Lyme disease as a trigger for violence. Can microbes and  immune reactions to them actually contribute to cognitive decline, degenerative neurological disease, developmental disabilities, mental illness, personality changes and, at the most extreme, even violent and criminal behavior?

Here to weigh in with some evidence is psychiatrist Robert Bransfield, an expert on the psychiatric manifestions of Lyme disease and founder of the mailing list, Microbes and Mental Illness, where the discussions on such topics are held.

"There are several thousand peer-reviewed references demonstrating the association between infections and mental symptoms and at least 65 different microbes have been recognized as causing mental symptoms," Bransfield writes.  "Over two hundred peer-reviewed articles describe the causal association between Lyme/tick-borne diseases and mental symptoms, pathophysiology, morbidity and mortality. Attempted suicide and completed suicide associated with neuropsychiatric manifestations of Lyme disease and other tick-borne disease has been observed and reported by many other clinicians and myself." 

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Bransfield's work has focussed, in part, on infection and aggresion. "Although most patients with Lyme/tick-borne disease do not become violent, a small percent of patients who become infected develop a type of neurological dysfunction that can increase their risk of aggressiveness. In working with a number of patients with Lyme/tick-borne diseases it is apparent to many clinicians these conditions can cause reduced frustration tolerance, irritability, depression, cognitive impairments and mood swings, but more significantly, in a few patients, suicidal and aggressive tendencies."

For the doubters on the issue, Bransfield refers to his own website, Mental Health and Illness, and has provided peer-reviewed publications that offer not just theory but also nuance, complexity, and proof. With his permission, I list some of those, below.-- Pamela Weintraub (author of Cure Unknown: Inside the Lyme Epidemic and senior editor at Discover Magazine.)

Microbes and mental illness: The evidence in black and white

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [letter] AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Nields JA.
SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Summer;10(3):366-7

Acute and chronic neuroborreliosis with and without CNS involvement: a clinical, MRI, and HLA study of 27 cases. AUTHORS: Krüger H, Heim E, Schuknecht B, Scholz S. SOURCE: J Neurol. 1991 Aug;238(5):271-80.

Altered mental status, an unusual manifestation of early disseminated Lyme disease: A case report. AUTHORS: Chabria SB, Lawrason J. SOURCE: J Med Case Reports. 2007 Aug 9;1:62.

The association between tick-borne infections, Lyme borreliosis and autism spectrum disorders AUTHORS: Bransfield RC, Wulfman JS, Harvey WT, Usman AI.
SOURCE: Medical Hypotheses. 5 Nov 2007

Alzheimer's disease Braak Stage progressions: reexamined and redefined as Borrelia infection transmission through neural circuits. AUTHOR: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(5):1059-64. Epub 2006 Nov 17.

Alzheimer's neuroborreliosis with trans-synaptic spread of infection and neurofibrillary tangles derived from intraneuronal spirochetes. AUTHOR: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(4):822-5. Epub 2006 Oct 20.

Antibodies against OspA epitopes of Borrelia burgdorferi cross-react with neural tissue. AUTHORS: Alaedini A, Latov N. SOURCE: J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Feb;159(1-2):192-5. Epub 2004 Nov 26.

Audiologic manifestations of patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome AUTHORS: Shotland LI, Mastrioanni MA, Choo DL, Szymko-Bennett YM, Dally LG, Pikus AT, Sledjeski K, Marques A  SOURCE: Ear Hear. 2003 Dec;24(6):508-17

Bartonella sp. Bacteremia in Patients with Neurological and Neurocognitive Dysfunction. AUTHORS: Journal of Clinical Midrobiology. 46(9):2856–2861 SOURCE: Breitschwerdt EB. Maggi RG, Nicholson WL, Cherry NA, Woods CW.

The basic syndromes of neurological disorders in Lyme borreliosis: AUTHORS: Dekonenko EP, Umanskii KG, Virich IE, Kupriianova LV, Rudometov, IuP, Bagrov FI: SOURCE: Ter Arkh 1995; 67 (11) : 52-53

Beta-amyloid deposition and Alzheimer's type changes induced by Borrelia spirochetes. AUTHORS: Miklossy J, Kis A, Radenovic A, Miller L, Forro L, Martins R, Reiss K, Darbinian N, Darekar P, Mihaly L, Khalili K. SOURCE: Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Feb;27(2):228-36.

Bell’s Palsy of the Gut and other Manifestations of Lyme and Associated Diseases AUTHOR: Sherr VT SOURCE: Practical Gastroenterology April 2006

Bilateral dorsolateral thalamic lesions disrupts conscious recollection. AUTHORS: Edelstyn NM, Hunter B, Ellis SJ. SOURCE: Neuropsychologia. 2006;44(6):931-8. Epub 2005 Oct 25.

Borrelia burgdorferi in the central nervous system: experimental and clinical evidence for early invasion. AUTHORS: Garcia-Monco JC, Villar BF, Alen JC, Benach JL. SOURCE: J Infect Dis. 1990 Jun;161(6):1187-93.

Borrelia burgdorferi central nervous system infection presenting as an organic schizophrenialike disorder. AUTHORS: Hess A, Buchmann J, Zettl UK, Henschel S, Schlaefke D, Grau G, Benecke R.  SOURCE: Biol Psychiatry 1999 Mar 15;45(6):795

Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease. AUTHORS: Miklossy J, Khalili K, Gern L, Ericson RL, Darekar P, Bolle L, Hurlimann J, Paster BJ. SOURCE: J Alzheimers Dis. 2004 Dec;6(6):639-49; discussion 673-81.

Borrelia burgdorferi-seropositive chronic encephalomyelopathy: Lyme neuroborreliosis? An autopsied report. AUTHORS: Kobayashi K, Mizukoshi C, Aoki T, Muramori F, Hayashi M, Miyazu K, Koshino Y, Ohta M, Nakanishi I, Yamaguchi N.  SOURCE: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 1997 Nov-Dec;8(6):384-90.

[Borreliosis--simultaneous Lyme carditis and psychiatric disorders--case report] AUTHORS: Legatowicz-Koprowska M, Gziut AI, Walczak E, Gil RJ, Wagner T. SOURCE: Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2008 May;24(143):433-5. Polish.

Brain SPECT Imaging in Chronic Lyme Disease.  AUTHORS: Plutchok JJ, Tikofsky RS, Liegner KB, Fallon BA, Van Heertum RL.  SOURCE: Journal of Spirochetal and Tick Borne-Diseases, 1999; 6: 10-16.

Carbamazepine in the treatment of Lyme disease-induced hyperacusis.
AUTHORS: Nields JA, Fallon BA, Jastreboff PJ.  SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999 Winter;11(1):97-9

Case report: Lyme disease and complex partial seizures. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC.SOURCE: Journal of Spirochetes and Tick-borne Diseases; Fall/Winter 1999, Vol 6, p123-125

Central nervous system manifestations of human ehrlichiosis.
AUTHORS: Ratnasamy N, Everett ED, Roland WE, McDonald G, Caldwell CW.
SOURCE: Clin Infect Dis 1996 Aug;23(2):314-9

Cerebral metabolic changes associated with Lyme disease  AUTHORS: Newberg A, Hassan A, Alavi A.  SOURCE: Nucl Med Commun 2002 August;23(8):773-777

Chronic Bacterial and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative and Neurobehavioral Diseases. AUTHORS: Nicholson GL. SOURCE: Lab Medicine. 2008;39(5):291-9.

Chronic borrelia encephalomyeloradiculitis with severe mental disturbance: immunosuppressive versus antibiotic therapy. AUTHORS: Kollikowski HH, Schwendemann G, Schulz M, Wilhelm H, Lehmann HJ. SOURCE: J Neurol. 1988 Jan;235(3):140-2.

Chronic inflammation and amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer's disease -- role of Spirochetes. AUTHORS: Miklossy J. SOURCE: J Alzheimers Dis. 2008 May;13(4):381-91. Review.

Chronic neurologic manifestations of erythema migrans borreliosis.
AUTHORS: Ackermann R, Rehse-Kupper B, Gollmer E, Schmidt R.
SOURCE: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:16-23.

Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, Steere AC. SOURCE: N Engl J Med. 1990 Nov 22;323(21):1438-44.

Clinical and demographic characteristics of psychiatric patients seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi. AUTHORS: Hájek T, Libiger J, Janovská D, Hájek P, Alda M, Höschl C. SOURCE: Eur Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;21(2):118-22.

[Clinical manifestations and epidemiological aspects leading to a diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: neurological and psychiatric manifestations in the course of Lyme borreliosis] AUTHORS: Créange A. SOURCE: Med Mal Infect. 2007 Jul-Aug;37(7-8):532-9. Epub 2007 Mar 26. Review. French.

Co-existance of toxoplasmosis and neuroborreliosis - a case report.
AUTHORS: Gustaw K, Beltowska K, Dlugosz E.  SOURCE: Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005;12(2):305-8.

Cognitive functioning in late Lyme borreliosis. AUTHORS: Krupp LB, Masur D, Schwartz J, Coyle PK, Langenbach LJ, Fernquist SK, Jandorf L, Halperin JJ. SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 1991 Nov;48(11):1125-9.

Cognitive Impairments after Tick-borne Encephalitis. AUTHORS: Gustaw-Rothenberg K. SOURCE: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2008;26:165-168.

Cognitive processing speed in Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Pollina DA, Sliwinski M, Squires NK, Krupp LB.  SOURCE: Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 1999 Jan;12(1):72-8.

Complaints attributed to chronic Lyme disease: depression or fibromyalgia? AUTHORS: Berman DS, Wenglin BD. SOURCE: Am J Med. 1995 Oct;99(4):440.

Concurrent infection of the central nervous system by Borrelia burgdorferi and Bartonella henselae: evidence for a novel tick-borne disease complex. AUTHORS: Eskow E, Rao RV, Mordechai E. SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 2001 Sep;58(9):1357-63.

Concurrent medical conditions with pediatric bipolar disorder. AUTHORS: Scheffer RE, Linden S. SOURCE: Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007 Jul;20(4):398-401. Review.

Consequences of treatment delay in Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Cameron DJ SOURCE: J Eval Clin Pract. 2007 Jun;13(3):470-2.

Constipation Heralding Neuroborreliosis AUTHORS: Shamim A, Shamim S; Liss G; Nylen E; Pincus J; Yepes M.  SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 2005;62:671-673.

A Controlled Study of Cognitive Deficits in Children With Chronic Lyme Disease
AUTHORS: Tager FA, Fallon BA, Keilp J, Rissenberg M, Jones CR, Liebowitz MR.
SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 13:500-507, November 2001
FULL TEXT: http://www.lymediseaseassociation.org/Tager.pdf

Behavioral Consequences of Infections of the Central Nervous System: With Emphasis on Viral Infections AUTHORS: Tselis A, MD, Booss J. SOURCE: J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 31:289–98, 2003

Catatonic syndrome in acute severe encephalitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Pfister HW, Preac-Mursic V, Wilske B, Rieder G, Forderreuther S, Schmidt S, AUTHORS: Kapfhammer HP. SOURCE: Neurology. 1993 Feb;43(2):433-5.

Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Logigian EL; Kaplan RF; Steere AC SOURCE: N Engl J Med 1990 Nov 22;323(21):1438- 44.

Delirium and Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Caliendo MV, Kushon DJ, Helz JW.
SOURCE: Psychosomatics. 1995 Jan-Feb;36(1):69-74.

Delusional disorders in the course of tick-born encephalitis and borreliosis in patients with hemophilia A and posttraumatic epilepsy--diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties] AUTHORS: Grzywa A, Karakuła H, Górecka J, Chuchra M. SOURCE: Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2004 Jan;16(91):60-3. Polish.

Demyelinating polyradiculitis in neuro borreliosis: AUTHORS: Corral I, Sanchis G, Garcia-Ribas G, Quereda C, Escudero R, de Blas G: SOURCE: Neurologia 1995 Feb; 10 (2) : 110-113

Detection of Bartonella henselae by polymerase chain reaction in brain tissue of an immunocompromised patient with multiple enhancing lesions. Case report and review of the literature. AUTHORS: George TI, Manley G, Koehler JE, Hung VS, McDermott M, Bollen A. SOURCE: J Neurosurg. 1998 Oct;89(4):640-4. Review.

The diagnosis of Lyme disease. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Hosp Pract (Minneap). 1996 Aug 15;31(8):35, 40.

Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease. AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: JAMA. 1998 Sep 23-30;280(12):1049; author reply 1051.

Dementia associated with infectious diseases. AUTHOR: Almeida OP, Lautenschlager NT. SOURCE: Int Psychogeriatr. 2005;17 Suppl 1:S65-77. Review.

Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Lyme Disease with Special Reference to Psychiatric Practice.  AUTHORS: Nields JA, Fallon BA.  SOURCE: Directions in Psychiatry, 1998, 18: 209-228.

A disease in disguise. Lyme can masquerade as migraine, or as madness.AUTHORS: Cowley G, Underwood A. SOURCE: Newsweek. 2004 Aug 23;144(8):62.

Do bartonella infections cause agitation, panic disorder, and treatment-resistant depression? AUTHORS: Schaller JL, Burkland GA, Langhoff PJ. SOURCE: MedGenMed. 2007 Sep 13;9(3):54.

Does process-specific slowing account for cognitive deficits in Lyme disease? AUTHORS: Pollina DA, Elkins LE, Squires NK, Scheffer SR, Krupp LB. SOURCE: Appl Neuropsychol. 1999;6(1):27-32.

Emerging infectious determinants of chronic diseases. AUTHORS: O'Connor SM, Taylor CE, Hughes JM. SOURCE: Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jul;12(7):1051-7.

Endogenous paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome caused by Borrelia encephalitis
AUTHORS: Barnett W, Sigmund D, Roelcke U, Mundt C.
SOURCE: Nervenarzt 1991 Jul;62(7):445-7 [German]

Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings of human ehrlichiosis in the United States, 1988. AUTHORS: Eng TR, Harkess JR, Fishbein DB, Dawson JE, Greene CN, Redus MA, Satalowich FT.  SOURCE: JAMA 1990 Nov 7;264(17):2251-8

[Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid serotonin (5-HT) concentration in patients with post-Lyme disease syndrome--preliminary study] AUTHORS: Kepa L, Oczko-Grzesik B, Badura-Glombik T. SOURCE: Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62(4):793-800. Polish.

Evidence for Mycoplasma, ssp., Chalmydia pneumoniae, and Human Herpes-virus 6 Coinfections in Blood of patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders. AUTHORS: Nicholson GL, Gann R, Nicholson NL, Haier J. SOURCE: Journal of Neuroscience Research 2007 85.

First-episode psychosis in a managed care setting: clinical management and research. AUTHORS: Jarskog LF, Mattioli MA, Perkins DO, Lieberman JA. SOURCE: Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Jun;157(6):878-84.

FLAIR and magnetization transfer imaging of patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. AUTHORS: Morgen K, Martin R, Stone RD, Grafman J, Kadom N, McFarland HF, Marques A. SOURCE: Neurology. 2001 Dec 11;57(11):1980-5.

Functional Brain Imaging and Neuropsychological Testing in Lyme Disease
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Das S, Plutchok JJ, Tager F, Liegner K, Van Heertum R.
SOURCE: CID 1997; 25:S57-63  COMPLETE ARTICLE AT:
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/issues/v25nS1/jy21_57/jy21_57.web.pdf

Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia. AUTHOR: Fritzsche M. SOURCE: Int J Health Geogr. 2002 Dec 20;1(1):5.

Geographic correlation of schizophrenia to ticks and tick-borne encephalitis.
AUTHOR: Brown JS Jr.  SOURCE: Schizophr Bull 1994;20(4):755-75

Geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Mudanjiang AUTHOR: Zhang Z.
SOURCE: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 1991 Jun;12(3):154-7. [Chinese]

Gestational Lyme borreliosis. Implications for the fetus. AUTHOR: MacDonald AB.SOURCE: Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Nov;15(4):657-77. Review.

Higher Prevalence of Antibodies to Borrelia Burgdorferi in Psychiatric Patients Than in Healthy Subjects  AUTHORS: Hajek T, Paskova B, Janovska D, Bahbouh R, Hajek P, Libiger J, Hoschl C.  SOURCE: Am J Psychiatry 159:297-301, February 2002  COMPLETE TEXT AT: http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/159/2/297

Hypochondriasis and obsessive compulsive disorder: overlaps in diagnosis and treatment. AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Javitch JA, Hollander E, Liebowitz MR. SOURCE: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. November 1991: 52(11):457-60.

Increased anti-streptococcal antibodies in patients with Tourette's syndrome. AUTHORS: Muller N, Riedel M, Straube A, Gunther W, Wilske B. SOURCE: Psychiatry Res. 2000 Apr 24;94(1):43-9.

Infectious Agents in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder AUTHORS: Yolken RH, Torrey EF, SOURCE: 2006 June 43(7)

Inflammatory brain changes in Lyme Borreliosis. A report on three patients and review of literature; AUTHORS: Oksi J, Kalimo H, Marttila RJ, Marjarnaki M, Sonninen P, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen MK:  SOURCE: Brain, 1996 Dec; 119 (Pt 6) : 2143-2154

Invasion of human neuronal and glial cells by an infectious strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. AUTHORS: Livengood JA, Gilmore RD Jr. SOURCE: Microbes Infect. 2006 Nov-Dec;8(14-15):2832-40. Epub 2006 Sep 22.

 Isolated monolateral neurosensory hearing loss as a rare sign of neuroborreliosis.AUTHORS: Iero I, Elia M, Cosentino FI, Lanuzza B, Spada RS, Toscano G, Tripodi M, Belfiore A, Ferri R. SOURCE: Neurol Sci. 2004 Apr;25(1):30-3.

Late-Stage Neuropsychiatric Lyme Borreliosis: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Schwartzberg M, Bransfield R, Zimmerman B, Scotti A, Weber CA, Liebowitz MR.  SOURCE: Psychosomatics 1995;36:295-300
COMPLETE TEXT AT:
http://www.wadhurst.demon.co.uk/lyme/lyme101.htm

The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. A population-based retrospective cohort study. AUTHORS: Shadick NA, Phillips CB, Logigian EL, Steere AC, Kaplan RF, Berardi VP, Duray PH, Larson MG, Wright EA, Ginsburg KS, Katz JN, Liang MH. SOURCE: Ann Intern Med. 1994 Oct 15;121(8):560-7.

Long-term cognitive effects of Lyme disease in children. AUTHORS: Adams WV, Rose CD, Eppes SC, Klein JD.  SOURCE: Appl Neuropsychol 1999;6(1):39-45

Loss of the sense of humor AUTHOR: Ramanan SV.  SOURCE: Arch Intern Med 2000 Sep 11;160(16):2546

Lyme borreliosis in neurology and psychiatry AUTHOR: Kohler J.  SOURCE: Fortschr Med. 1990 Apr 10;108(10):191-3, 197. Review. [German]

Lyme Borreliosis: Neuropsychiatric Aspects and Neuropathology AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Vaccaro BJ, Romano M, Clemente MD. SOURCE: Psychiatric Annals 2006;36(2):120-8.

Lyme Disease: A Neuropsychiatric Illness  AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Nields JA.
SOURCE: Am J Psychiatry 1994 Nov;151(11):1571-83  COMPLETE TEXT AT:
http://www.angelfire.com/biz/romarkaraoke/lymeart.html

Lyme disease: an infectious and postinfectious syndrome. AUTHOR: Asch ES, Bujak DI, Weiss M, Peterson MG, Weinstein A. SOURCE: Journal of Rheumatology. 1994 Mar;21(3):454-61

Lyme Disease and the Clinical Spectrum of Antibiotic Responsive Chronic Meningoencephalomyelitides AUTHORS: Liegner KB, Duray P, et al. SOURCE: Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases. 1997 Fall.Winter:4:61-72

Lyme Disease, Comorbid Tick-Borne Diseases, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders - Psychiatric Times AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Psychiatric Times. 2007 Dec; 24(14)

Lyme disease--neuroborreliosis
AUTHORS: Jovanovic J, Cvjetkovic D, Vukadinov J.
SOURCE: Med Pregl. 1995;48(3-4):120-2. [Serbo-Croatian: Roman]

Lyme disease presenting as Tourette's syndrome. AUTHORS: Riedel M, Straube A, Schwarz MJ, Wilske B, Muller N. SOURCE: Lancet. 1998 Feb 7;351(9100):418-9

Lyme encephalopathy. AUTHORS: Sanders K, Rogers JD.  SOURCE: Neurology. 1991 Jun;41(6):952-3.

Lyme encephalopathy: long-term neuropsychological deficits years after acute neuroborreliosis. AUTHORS: Benke T, Gasse T, Hittmair-Delazer M, Schmutzhard E.  SOURCE: Acta Neurol Scand. 1995 May;91(5):353-7.

Lyme encephalopathy: a neuropsychological perspective. AUTHORS: Kaplan RF, Jones-Woodward L. SOURCE: Semin Neurol. 1997 Mar;17(1):31-7. Review.

Lyme neuroborreliosis:  AUTHORS: Garcia-Monco JC, Benach JL: SOURCE: Ann Neurol 1995 Jun; 37 (6) : 691-70     

Lyme neuroborreliosis: central nervous system manifestations. AUTHORS: Halperin JJ, Luft BJ, Anand AK, Roque CT, Alvarez O, Volkman DJ, Dattwyler RJ.SOURCE: Neurology. 1989 Jun;39(6):753-9.

Lyme Neuroborreliosis: infection, immunity and inflammation. AUTHORS: Pachner AR, Steiner I SOURCE: Lancet Neurology 2007 6:544-52.

 Lyme neuroborreliosis manifesting as an intracranial mass lesion. AUTHORS: Murray R, Morawetz R, Kepes J, el Gammal T, LeDoux M.  SOURCE: Neurosurgery. 1992 May;30(5):769-73.

Lyme neuroborreliosis of mental manifestation. Apropos of a case
AUTHORS: Gueglio B, Raffi F, Marjolet M.  SOURCE: Rev Med Interne. 1996;17(7):599. [French]

Lyme neuroborreliosis revealed as a normal pressure hydrocephalus: a cause of reversible dementia. AUTHORS: Etienne M, Carvalho P, Fauchais AL, Pestel-Caron M, Doucet J, Chassagne P.  SOURCE: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 Apr;51(4):579-80.

Lyme Psychosis AUTHORS: van den Bergen HA, Smith JP, van der Zwan A.
SOURCE: Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1993 Oct 9;137(41):2098-100 [Dutch]

Measurement of long-term outcomes in observational and randomised controlled trials. AUTHORS: Hodgson R, Bushe C, Hunter R. SOURCE: Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2007 Aug;50:s78-84. Review.

Memory and executive functions in adolescents with posttreatment Lyme disease
AUTHORS: McAuliffe P, Brassard MR, Fallon B  SOURCE: Applied Neuropsychology, Volume 15, Issue 3 July 2008, pp. 208 - 219

Memory impairment and depression in patients with Lyme encephalopathy: comparison with fibromyalgia and nonpsychotically depressed patients.

AUTHORS: Kaplan RF, Meadows ME, Vincent LC, Logigian EL, Steere AC. SOURCE: Neurology. 1992 Jul;42(7):1263-7.

Meningoradiculoencephalitis in Lyme disease. A case with major regressive mental disorders. AUTHORS: Ferroir JP, Reignier A, Nicolle MH, Guillard A.  SOURCE: Presse Med. 1988 Apr 16;17(14):697. [French]

Mental disorders in the course of lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis
AUTHORS: Juchnowicz D, Rudnik I, Czernikiewicz A, Zajkowska J, Pancewicz SA.
SOURCE: Przegl Epidemiol 2002;56 Suppl 1:37-50 [Polish]

Mental disorders in the course of neuroborreliosis: own observation
AUTHORS: Zajkowska JM, Poplawska R, Pancewicz SA, Kondrusik M, Gudel I, Snarska I.  SOURCE: Psychiatr Pol 1999 Nov-Dec;33(6):939-46 [Polish]

Mental disorders in Lyme disease
AUTHORS: Rudnik-Szalaj I, Poplawska R, Zajkowska J, Szulc A, Pancewicz SA, Gudel I.  SOURCE: Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2001 Nov;11(65):460-2. Review. [Polish]

[Mental disorders in the course of lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis]AUTHORS: Juchnowicz D, Rudnik I, Czernikiewicz A, Zajkowska J, Pancewicz SA. SOURCE: Przegl Epidemiol. 2002;56 Suppl 1:37-50. Polish.

[Mental disorders in the course of neuroborreliosis: own observation]AUTHORS: Zajkowska JM, Popławska R, Pancewicz SA, Kondrusik M, Gudel I, Snarska I.SOURCE: Psychiatr Pol. 1999 Nov-Dec;33(6):939-46. Polish.

Mental nerve neuropathy in Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Maillefert JF, Dardel P, Piroth C, Tavernier C. SOURCE: Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1997 Dec;64(12):855.

Mental problems in Lyme disease AUTHORS: Rudnik I, Poplawska R, Zajkowska J, Konarzewska B, Juchnowicz D, Pancewicz SA  SOURCE: Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2003 Aug;15(86):161-4

Multiple neurologic manifestations of Borrelia burgdorferi infection
AUTHOR: Dupuis MJ.  SOURCE: Rev Neurol (Paris) 1988;144(12):765-75 [French]

Munchausen's syndrome by proxy and Lyme disease: medical misogyny or diagnostic mystery? AUTHOR: Sherr VT.  SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2005;65(3):440-7.

Musical Hallucinations in Patients with Lyme Disease  AUTHORS: Stricker R, Winger  SOURCE: Southern Medical Journal 2003; 96(7):711-715

Neopterin production and tryptophan degradation in acute Lyme neuroborreliosis versus late Lyme encephalopathy.

Gasse T, Murr C, Meyersbach P, Schmutzhard E, Wachter H, Fuchs D. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1994 Sep;32(9):685-9.

Neuroborreliosis: a psychiatric problem? AUTHORS: Poplawska R, Szulc A, Zajkowska J, Pancewicz S.  SOURCE: Psychiatr Pol 1999 Mar-Apr;33(2):241-50 [Polish]

[Neuroborreliosis in a patient with progressive supranuclear paralysis. An association or the cause?] AUTHORS: García-Moreno JM, Izquierdo G, Chacón J, Angulo S, Borobio MV. SOURCE: Rev Neurol. 1997 Dec;25(148):1919-21. Spanish.

Neurocognitive abnormalities in children after classic manifestations of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Bloom BJ, Wyckoff PM, Meissner HC, Steere AC. SOURCE: Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Mar;17(3):189-96.

Neurologic syndromes in Lyme disease AUTHORS: Zajkowska JM, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T, Kondrusik M, Pancewicz SA  SOURCE: Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2000 Aug;9(50):584-8. Review. [Polish]

[Neurologic and psychiatric manifestations of Lyme disease] AUTHORS: Blanc F; GEBLY. SOURCE: Med Mal Infect. 2007 Jul-Aug;37(7-8):435-45. Epub 2007 Mar 9. Review.

Neurologic manifestations in children with North American Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Belman AL, Iyer M, Coyle PK, Dattwyler R. SOURCE: Neurology. 1993 Dec;43(12):2609-14.

Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease: Dilemmas in Diagnosis and Treatment AUTHORS: Stratmoen M. SOURCE: Neurology Today 2004;4(4)71-5.

[Neurological manifestations of Lyme disease] AUTHORS: García-Moncó JC, Benach JL. SOURCE: Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 1989 Nov;7(9):501-6. Review. Spanish.

Neurological Manifestations of Lyme Disease, The New "Great Imitator"AUTHOR: Pachner AR: SOURCE: Infectious Disease; 11 Suppl 6:S1482-1486;1989

Neurological and psychological symptoms after the severe acute neuroborreliosis.
AUTHORS: Gustaw K, Beltowska K, Studzinska MM.  SOURCE: Ann Agric Environ Med 2001;8(1):91-4  COMPLETE TEXT AT:
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/aaem0113.htm

Neurologic Manifestations of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Ragnaud JM, Morlat P, Buisson M, Perrer X, Orgogozo JM, Julien J, SOURCE: Beylot J, Aubertin J: Apropos of 25 cases:Rev Med Interne 1995; 16 (7) : 487-494

Neurologic manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in children: AUTHORS: Millner M:SOURCE: Wien Med Wochenschr 1995; 145 (7-8): 178-182

Neuropsychiatric Lyme Disease: the New 'Great Imitator'  AUTHOR: Fallon B
SOURCE: Psychiatric Times, June 2004

The neuropsychiatric manifestations of Lyme borreliosis
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Nields JA, Burrascano JJ, Liegner K, DelBene D, Liebowitz MR.  SOURCE: Psychiatr Q 1992 Spring;63(1):95-117  COMPLETE TEXT AT:
http://www.lymenet.org

Neuropsychiatric Lyme Disease.  AUTHOR: Fallon BA.  SOURCE: Harvard Mental Health Letter, Forum 10/95

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of Lyme disease AUTHOR: Paparone PW.
SOURCE: J Am Osteopath Assoc 1998 Jul;98(7):373-8

Neuropsychological deficits in Lyme disease patients with and without other evidence of central nervous system pathology.

AUTHORS: Kaplan RF, Jones-Woodward L, Workman K, Steere AC, Logigian EL, Meadows ME. SOURCE: Appl Neuropsychol. 1999;6(1):3-11.

Neuropsychological deficits in neuroborreliosis. AUTHORS: Primavera A, Gazzola P, De Maria AF. SOURCE: Neurology. 1999 Sep 11;53(4):895-6.

The neuropsychological examination of naming in Lyme borreliosis. AUTHORS: Svetina C, Barr WB, Rastogi R, Hilton E. SOURCE: Appl Neuropsychol. 1999;6(1):33-8.

Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Westervel HJ, McCaffrey RJ.  SOURCE: Neuropsychol Rev 2002 Sep;12(3):153-77 Review.

On the question of infectious aetiologies for multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and the chronic fatigue syndrome and their treatment with antibiotics AUTHOR: Frykholm BO. SOURCE: Medical Hypotheses (2009) in print

The organic disorders in the course of Lyme disease
AUTHORS: Rudnik I, Konarzewska B, Zajkowska J, Juchnowicz D, Markowski T, Pancewicz SA  SOURCE: Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 2004 Apr;16(94):328-31

Pain, fatigue, depression after borreliosis. Antibiotics used up--what next?
AUTHORS: Woessner R, Treib J
SOURCE: MMW Fortschr Med. 2003 Sep 18;145(38):45-8

Painful hallucinations and somatic delusions in a patient with the possible diagnosis of neuroborreliosis.
AUTHORS: Bar KJ, Jochum T, Hager F, Meissner W, Sauer H.
SOURCE: Clin J Pain. 2005 Jul-Aug;21(4):362-3.

Panic Attacks May Reveal Previously Unsuspected Chronic Disseminated Lyme Disease
AUTHOR: Sherr VT.
SOURCE: Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 6:352-356, November 2000

Parasitic delirium in patient with multiorganic pathology: a complex situation
AUTHORS: Hernandez-Albujar S, Rubio G, Gopar J, Galeote G, Rey R, Gil A.
SOURCE: An Med Interna 1996 Nov;13(11):549-51 [Spanish]

The Physician as a Patient: Lyme Disease, Ehrlichiosis, and Babesiosis: A Recounting of a Personal Experience with Tick-Borne Diseases AUTHORS: Sherr VT.  SOURCE: Practical Gastroenterology, January 2000

Plaques of Alzheimer's disease originate from cysts of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete. AUTHORS: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(3):592-600. Epub 2006 May 3.

[Positive anti-Borrelia antibodies in patients with clinical manifestations compatible with neuroborreliosis] AUTHORS: Izquierdo G, Aguilar J, Barranquero A, Navarro G, Borobio MV, Angulo S, Domínguez I, Quesada MA. SOURCE: Neurologia. 1992 Feb;7(2):50-4. Spanish.

Post-Lyme syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychiatric similarities and differences. AUTHORS: Gaudino EA, Coyle PK, Krupp LB. SOURCE: Arch Neurol. 1997 Nov;54(11):1372-6.

Potential uses of Modafinil in Psychiatric Disorders AUTHOR: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Journal of Applied Research, 2004 Spring; 4(2): 198-208 Preventable cases of autism: relationship between chronic infectious disease and neurological outcome. AUTHORS: Bransfield RC. SOURCE: Pediatric Health. (2009) April 3(2).

Primarily chronic and cerebrovascular course of Lyme neuroborreliosis: case reports and literature review. AUTHORS: Wilke M, Eiffert H, Christen HJ, Hanefeld F. SOURCE: Arch Dis Child. 2000 Jul;83(1):67-71. Review.

Post-Lyme syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychiatric similarities and differences. AUTHORS: Gaudino EA, Coyle PK, Krupp LB.  SOURCE: Arch Neurol 1997 Nov;54(11):1372-6

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi serum antibodies in 651 patients with predominantly neurologic diseases AUTHORS: Muller M, Retzl J, Plank E, Scholz H, Ziervogel H, Stanek G.
SOURCE: Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1993;105(21):599-602. [German]

Protein markers for Alzheimer disease in the frontal cortex and cerebellum.AUTHORS: Verdile G, Gnjec A, Miklossy J, Fonte J, Veurink G, Bates K, Kakulas B, Mehta PD, Milward EA, Tan N, Lareu R, Lim D, Dharmarajan A, Martins RN. SOURCE: Neurology. 2004 Oct 26;63(8):1385-92.

Psychiatric aspects of Lyme disease in children and adolescents:  A community epidemiologic study in Westchester, New York AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Bird H, Hoven C, Cameron D, Liebowitz MR, Shaffer S.  SOURCE: JSTD 1994; 1:98-100

Psychiatric Issues in Infectious Diseases AUTHOR: Levenson JL SOURCE: Primary Psychiatry 2006;13(5):29-32.

Psychiatric manifestations of Lyme borreliosis AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Nields JA, Parsons B, Liebowitz MR, Klein DF.  SOURCE: J Clin Psychiatry 1993 Jul;54(7):263-8

Psychiatric presentations of non-HIV infectious diseases.  AUTHORS: Schneider RK, Robinson MJ, Levenson JL.  SOURCE: Psychiatr Clin North Am 2002 Mar;25(1):1-16

Psychologic disorders in acute and persistent neuroborreliosis AUTHORS: Poplawska R, Konarzewska B, Gudel-Trochimowicz I, Szulc A.
SOURCE: Pol Merkuriusz Lek 2001 Jan;10(55):36-7 [Polish]

Psychological states and neuropsychological performances in chronic Lyme disease AUTHORS: Elkins LE, Pollina DA, Scheffer SR, Krupp LB.
SOURCE: Appl Neuropsychol 1999;6(1):19-26

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repeated IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme encephalopathy AUTHORS: Fallon BA, et al.  SOURCE: Neurology, first published on October 10, 2007 as doi

Rapidly progressive frontal-type dementia associated with Lyme disease
AUTHORS: Waniek C, Prohovnik I, Kaufman MA, Dwork AJ.  SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995 Summer;7(3):345-7

Recurrent and relapsing course of borreliosis of the nervous system
AUTHORS: Omasits M, Seiser A, Brainin M.
SOURCE: Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1990 Jan 5;102(1):4-12. Review. [German]

Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive deficits in chronic lyme disease.
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Keilp J, Prohovnik I, Heertum RV, Mann JJ.
SOURCE: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2003 Summer;15(3):326-32.

Repeated Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Lyme Disease.  AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Weis N, Tager F, Fein L, Liegner K, Liebowitz MR.  SOURCE: Journal of Spirochetal and Tick Borne Diseases, 1999; 6: 1-9.

Results of a prospective standardized study of 30 patients with chronic neurological and cognitive disorders after tick bites AUTHORS: Roche Lanquetot R, Ader F, Durand MC, Carlier R, Defferriere H, Dinh A, Herrmann JL, Guillemot D, Perronne C, Salomon J.

SOURCE: Med Mal Infect. 2008 Aug 20. [Article in French]

Reversible cerebral hypoperfusion in Lyme encephalopathy AUTHORS: Logigian EL, Johnson KA, Kijewski MF, Kaplan RF, Becker JA, Jones KJ, Garada BM, Holman BL, Steere AC. SOURCE: Neurology 1997 Dec;49(6):1661-70.

The role of kynurenines in disorders of the central nervous system: Possibilities for neuroprotection. AUTHORS: Vamos E, Pardutz A, Klivenyi P, Toldi J, Vecsei L. SOURCE: J Neurol Sci. 2009 Mar 4.

Role of psychiatric comorbidity in chronic Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Hassett AL, Radvanski DC, Buyske S, Savage SV, Gara M, Escobar JI, Sigal LH. SOURCE: Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Dec 15;59(12):1742-9.

Screening for Lyme disease in hospitalized psychiatric patients: prospective serosurvey in an endemic area. AUTHORS: Nadelman RB, Herman E, Wormser GP. SOURCE: Mt Sinai J Med. 1997 Nov;64(6):409-12.

Seasonal correlation of sporadic schizophrenia to Ixodes ticks and Lyme borreliosis
AUTHOR: Fritzsche M.  SOURCE: International Journal of Health Geographics 2002 1:2  COMPLETE TEXT AT:  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=12453316

[Secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus. A complication of chronic neuroborreliosis] AUTHORS: Druschky K, Stefan H, Grehl H, Neundörfer B. SOURCE: Nervenarzt. 1999 Jun;70(6):556-9. German.

Severity of Lyme disease with persistent symptoms. Insights from a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. AUTHOR: Cameron D. SOURCE: Minerva Med. 2008 Oct;99(5):489-96.

Sleep quality in Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Greenberg HE, Ney G, Scharf SM, Ravdin L, Hilton E. SOURCE: Sleep. 1995 Dec;18(10):912-6.

Spirochetal cyst forms in neurodegenerative disorders,...hiding in plain sight.AUTHORS: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(4):819-32. Epub 2006 Jul 7.

Spirochetal diseases of the nervous system. AUTHORS: Cintron R, Pachner AR. SOURCE: Curr Opin Neurol. 1994 Jun;7(3):217-22. Review.

Study and treatment of post Lyme disease (STOP-LD): a randomized double masked clinical trial. AUTHORS: Krupp LB, Hyman LG, Grimson R, Coyle PK, Melville P, Ahnn S, Dattwyler R, Chandler B. SOURCE: Neurology. 2003 Jun 24;60(12):1923-30.

Successful treatment of Lyme encephalopathy with intravenous ceftriaxone. AUTHORS: Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, Steere AC. SOURCE: J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):377-83.

Survival strategies of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Embers ME, Ramamoorthy R, Philipp MT. SOURCE: Microbes Infect. 2004 Mar;6(3):312-8. Review.

Transfection "Junk" DNA - a link to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease?AUTHORS: MacDonald AB. SOURCE: Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(6):1140-1. Epub 2006 Feb 14.

Treatment of patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. AUTHORS: Bransfield R, Brand S, Sherr V. SOURCE: N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1424-5.

Treatment-Resistant Depression: Progress and Limitations AUTHORS: Amsterdam JD, O’Reardon JP SOURCE: Psychiatric Annals. 1998;28(11):633

Tullio phenomenon and seronegative Lyme borreliosis [letter] AUTHORS: Nields JA, Kueton JF.  SOURCE: Lancet 1991 Jul 13;338(8759):128-9

The Underdiagnosis of Neuropsychiatric Lyme Disease in Children and Adults
AUTHORS: Fallon BA, Kochevar JM, Gaito A, Nields JA.
SOURCE: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 1998; 21: 693-703
COMPLETE TEXT AT:  http://www.lymenet.org

Untreated neuroborreliosis: Bannwarth's syndrome evolving into acute schizophrenia-like psychosis. A case report.
AUTHORS: Roelcke U, Barnett W, Wilder-Smith E, Sigmund D, Hacke W.
SOURCE: J Neurol 1992 Mar;239(3):129-31

An unusual presentation of cat scratch encephalitis.  AUTHORS: Chan L, Reilly KM, Snyder HS. SOURCE: J Emerg Med. 1995 Nov-Dec;13(6):769-72.

Value of clinical symptoms, intrathecal specific antibody production and PCR in CSF in the diagnosis of childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis: AUTHORS: Issakainen J, Gnehm HE, Lucchini GM, Zbinden R: SOURCE: Klin Padiatr 1996 May-Jun; 208 (3) : 106-109

WAIS-III and WMS-III performance in chronic Lyme disease.
AUTHORS: Keilp JG, Corbera K, Slavov I, Taylor MJ, Sackeim HA, Fallon BA.
SOURCE: J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2006 Jan;12(1):119-29

A 25-year-old woman with hallucinations, hypersexuality, nightmares, and a rash.
AUTHORS: Stein SL, Solvason HB, Biggart E, Spiegel D.
SOURCE: Am J Psychiatry. 1996 Apr;153(4):545-51.

A 58-year-old man with a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease, 1 year later. Steere AC. JAMA. 2002 Aug 28;288(8):1002-10.

A 58-year-old man with a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease, 1 year later. Burns RB, Hartman EE. JAMA. 2003 Dec 24;290(24):3247.


Pamela Weintraub is the Executive Editor at Discover magazine and author of Cure Unknown: Inside the Lyme Epidemic.

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