Don't Delay

Understanding procrastination and how to achieve our goals

Implementation Intentions Facilitate Action Control

I'm often asked what someone should do to reduce procrastination. One of my most common answers is, "It's not enough to have a goal intention, you need to have an implementation intention too." Today, I explain what an implementation intention is and how it works to overcome four common problems in goal pursuit.

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Format

Very interesting issue. Thanks for another promising tool.

Are there other ways of using implementation intention besides the if-then format?

Thanks...

formats of implementation intentions

Yes, J, there are, but the "if-then" has been shown to be the most effective. I discuss these next week in my iProcrasinate podcast (line at procrastination.ca).
tim

Tried it few times with great results already...

Dear Dr.Pychyl, thx again for this great "series" of posts, very nicely linked together and highly practically focused...
Now that I've "outed" myself in your blog by posting a long comment/reply to your "reader's strategies for coping with adult ADHD and procrastination" blog, I'd like to share some comments on this one which I find also extremely interesting:

1) MY (STILL SHORT) EXPERIENCE WITH IMPLEMENTATION INTENTIONS:
I have to admit that when I first read about Implementatoin Intentions in your blog, I was skeptical about it, since it sounded to me a bit like telling an alcoholic "If/when you feel like having a drink, then do something else". So it appeared "too simple to work". However, I decided to try it, since this was clearly not just an opinion, but something proven to work in studies as you very well described, and I found that when I made an implementation intention, it seemed significantly easier for me to act... I thought maybe it was some sort of placebo effect, but even then who cares if it's placebo as long as it works? So I kept trying it, whenever I remember to do it.
I have had already several examples where the impact of Implementation Intentions has been VERY clear on me, and I plan to use it more and more (often I still forget about using it, so maybe I need to make an Implem.Intention about using Implementation Intentions!).
To me it feels almost like a way of "programming my mind" (like a computer program with IF/THEN statements) ahead of time. And also like the "seed" of a habit in the case of repetitive situations.
In summary, so far I've had a surprisingly good experience trying this. Now I'll work to try to make it habit to use Implement.Intentions more often in my life.

2) A SMALL & USEFUL VARIATION: "EVEN IF"
I believe I heard about this small variation in one of your podcasts some time ago (but I'm not sure)? In any case, the reason for this, is that the first times I tried Implementation Intentions, sometimes it worked but sometimes it failed because I would get started, and quickly (<1min) feel an urge to stop and get some cofee ("just 1 minute"), etc. So I started to try this small variation...
WHEN/IF___
THEN____
EVEN IF____
In my case, this has been very useful too, by preparing my mind to deal with the immediate resistance and temptation that's to be expected. For example: WHEN I finish the 4pm teleconference, THEN I will immediately write the summary and send it to all, EVEN IF I feel a strong urge to do something else (like getting a quick coffee, checking my email "just 1 min", etc). Sometimes I also add the GOAL part you suggest: e.g. "...so that I can ACHIEVE MY GOAL of informing the team about the actions they need to take after the call.
So, in my case (with strong avoidance urges deeply built as habits in me), this "EVEN IF" addition seems to be very helpful too.

3) IMPLEMENTATION INTENTIONS vs FINDING+ADDRESSING THE ACTUAL "ROOT PROBLEM"?
Finally, I'd like to be a bit of devils advocate now (as you say, this is probably not a panacea). A question and potential issue in my mind is that if someone Procrastinates a lot chronically (like me), that's probably a symptom of a deeper and more serious issue(s). So even if Implementation Intentions help to take action on intended goals, that is not really addressing the real problem underneath. Meaning that all the other symptoms/consequences that the "root problem" is causing (besides procrastination... e.g. anxiety, fear, worry, guilt, demotivation, etc) might still remain short and long term. Solving the action side of things is already quite valuable, but ideally I would like to also address the underlying issue(s) behind it.
For example, even though I find myself procrastinating less thanks to Implementation Intentions, I still spend too much time in tasks that I should do quicker, and I probably feel a higher level of anxiety than most people feel doing the same task. And that's because of my perfectionism, which in turn is probably due to some Fear of Evaluation, which in turn might be due to a belief that I have that "People around me should value me, respect me, and like me". So unless I find the root irrational belief(s) and start changing them, the impact of the Implementation Intentions might be limited to the "surface" (the actions I take).
Theferore, in my particular case at least, I want to be careful not to rely "only" on Implementation Intentions, and forget about finding and addressing the root problems and/or irrational beliefs I might have.

As a closing comment, I was delighted to read about the 6y.o. experiment... I also have kids around this age, and will start testing Implement.Intentions with them. I believe that helping/educating my kids to be able to act on their intentions (i.e. NOT procrastinate like their father) is one of the best things we could give to my kids. Another thing I'm trying to help them with (cause of Procrastination as well), is related to ACT (which I talked about in my previous comment to you), so that as kids they also learn that pain/discomfort is a natural part of life that should be ACCEPTED instead of constantly trying to AVOID it (like I was raised to believe), but this one seems harder to teach than the Implementation Intention "trick" which is so simple and effective...

Thanks again for all the great work you share with us!
MM

PS: sorry for long reply, once again I probably "overdid" it (I thought about a quick 5mins reply and I've been 30mins already, and it's late here in Europe... si I'm afraid I'm procrastinating going to sleep as usual... arrrggg, I should have done an Implementation Intention!). Anyway, I guess I can't change my entire self so quickly. A step at a time...

If I'm understanding correctly...

This all goes back to self-regulation and the T.O.T.E. model of feedback loops, where an implementation intention defines the "operate" portion of that sequence.

If I'm understanding correctly...

This all goes back to self-regulation and the T.O.T.E. model of feedback loops, where an implementation intention defines the "operate" portion of that sequence.

Examples would be great!

Thank you so much for your blog, Dr. Pychyl!

I enjoyed this post a lot but felt a little confused about how to make an implementation intention at each of the steps laid out here. Would it be possible to give an example of an if/then implementation intention for each step? My problem is using them at step 2 - "staying on track".

One other question: in the past, you've suggested implementation intentions be formulated in another fashion. Just to be clear, do you think that the if/then form of implementation intentions work better and/or have more evidence supporting their effectiveness?

Thanks in advance!

Agreed. I also have such a

Agreed.

I also have such a broken concentration for certain writing styles and this article was hard to read in one sitting. It actually caused me to dilly dally on Twitter and Facebook.

Loose thoughts (and a doubt)

1. I find it suprising that such a simple ii can help in case 4 (to bolster our self-regulatory resources) - so it is really very valuable information - because this is sth you wouldn't expect to work (and wouldn't even try otherwise).
But at the same time I wonder if it would work in the long run: feeling tired is normal way your body says: you need a rest (I'm assuming it's not used as an excuse to procrastinate) - so of course, you can make yourself to do even if you are not feeling so - but can/shoul you use it in the long run, i.e to what extent? - you can overtrain yourself in sport and I from my experience you can overstrain yourself in self control too. So how you tell when more is too much? (I guess there is no simple answer - such thing can be learned by experience).
2. Actually your post lead me to two thoughts:
a) use practice of using ii to not to use ii ;) - I mean - it is restricted resource - you can have limited amount of them - so think if you really need one. I was about just today to put it to work, but I realized that it is much better to do it right away - and thinking about ii, why we delay things and so on - helped me to actually start (and finish) the task - whisper of emotions was automatically ignored
b) I see ii as a more rational way of thinking about your goals: having just vague idea what you want accomplish leads you nowhere - be rational - eiher decide that you don't do it or decide right away when (if), where and what is going to happen as the first step (or think about devoted time if you don't know your first step yet);
(if you don't: after some - presumably unproductive - time you will be again in the same place)

If then

Thans again for your blog, really helpful.
What about a book on If... Then exercises, a sort of self-help coaching book, starting off with simple, easy-to-do exercises, progressing to more complex. I'll get working in it straight away - well, beats doing the mountain of marking piled up in my study!

When will there be an app for

When will there be an app for that?

INTENTION_THE SYNONYM OF PROCRASTINATION

I've been diagnosed with ADD.
But recently found and diagnosed with an underlying affliction,
a more sinister and immobilizing behavioral dysfunction called IDDD.
Intetion Done Decifit Disorder. Sadly, the doctors could not come to the conclusion of which one affects the other, just like the "chicken and egg" conundrum. which one comes first? ADD creates IDDD, while IDDD feeds on ADD. It's a vicious cycle. You can take medications to curb your ADD, depression and/or bipolar; but they said IDDD is as old as when Man discovered fire. The (round) wheel was invented accidentally by a caveman with ADD. He was supposed to be chiselling a perfect a square stone wheel, when he was distacted
by a 3-ball juggling mamoth. Without looking on what he was chiseling at, he chipped the corners. Wanting to still have a polished work done, he perfected it into a circular wheel. That's the first known testament that people with ADD are often brilliant!

But then, Mankind could heve progressed faster from our caveman period. While this caveman who has completed the wheel, his brother is already on to a much bigger and more futuristic means of transport. He INTENDS to do a proto-type of a Rocketship, he wasn't
just get around to doing it. He's got IDDD! (also the first ever known reckord of that affliction). They say it runs in a family,
one will have ADD, the other sibling can have IDDD; but to have booth on the same person is very, very rare.

Sadly, I'm one of the rare one that have both; eventually, our ancestor's gene/DNA got mixed up along the way. Lucky me, I got it!

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Timothy A. Pychyl, Ph.D., is an associate professor of psychology at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, where he specializes in the study of procrastination.

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