Complementary Medicine

The best of natural and pharmaceutical medicine.

XMRV Controversy Heats Up — Two Important New Studies

As expected, the XMRV virus research has stimulated interest in a host of studies to see if the initial study results can be replicated and to discover treatments for XMRV. Two interesting new studies have been recently reported. Read More

Melatonin levels significantly higher in CFS/ME

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General Conclusion

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melatonin levels are significantly higher in CFS/ME
melatonin levels are significantly higher in CFS/ME
melatonin levels are significantly higher in CFS/ME

in adolescents that is
in adolescents that is
in adolescents that is

so this might very well be somewhat different in adults
so this might very well be somewhat different in adults
so this might very well be somewhat different in adults

because
because
because

Human Melatonin Production Decreases With Age
Human Melatonin Production Decreases With Age
Human Melatonin Production Decreases With Age

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Literature

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High nocturnal melatonin in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Oct;85(10):3690-2.

Decreased quality of sleep is frequently reported by chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in regulation of sleep.

[...]

Nocturnal saliva melatonin levels were significantly higher in CFS patients, compared with controls, at midnight ...

[...]

Based on these data, we suggest that there is no indication for melatonin supplementation in adolescents with CFS.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11061525

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Human Melatonin Production Decreases With Age

doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1600-079X.1986.tb00760.x

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Serotonin levels significantly higher in CFS/ME

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General Conclusion

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Serotonin levels significantly higher in CFS/ME
Serotonin levels significantly higher in CFS/ME
Serotonin levels significantly higher in CFS/ME

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Literature

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A Holistic Approach to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

S Horowitz - 2008

excessive serotonin levels in brain regions have been hypothesized to contribute to CFS ...

www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/act.2008.14302

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.2008.14302?journalCode=act

A Holistic Approach to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Sala Horowitz. June 2008, 14(3): 121-127.
Published in Volume: 14 Issue 3: July 1, 2008

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XMRV infection as the cause, and CFS/ME as the consequence.

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What is the link between XMRV and CFS/ME ?

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Xenotropic MuLV-related retrovirus (XMRV)
Xenotropic MuLV-related retrovirus (XMRV)
Xenotropic MuLV-related retrovirus (XMRV)

chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis
chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis
chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis

Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)
Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)
Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)

Active Infection by Variant A of Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)
Active Infection by Variant A of Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)
Active Infection by Variant A of Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)

Causes Tissue Destruction
Causes Tissue Destruction
Causes Tissue Destruction

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XMRV infection

causes

[1]

retroviral infection of the bone marrow cells

causing

(a)

PRCA-related Anemia (causing lethargy and outright malaise)

and

(b)

neutropenia in the blood

neutrophil accumulation in tissues

mainly

in the Central Nervous System (CNS)

and

in the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract

but sometimes also

in other organs, such as

the lungs

... and furthermore

XMRV infection

also causes

[2]

the stirring up of the serotonin and melatonin metabolism

causing

hyperserotonemia (causing outright agitation, or hyperexcitability)

causing

hypermelatonemia (causing outright numbness, or hypersedation)

causing

on a chronically recurrent basis

extremely debilitating exhaustion, lethargy,

or to put it

in an outright understatement : fatigue

leading to a syndrome

with

an understatement kind of name :

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,

but

nevertheless having

a more relevant kind of name

being

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis,

causing

muscular pain (myalgic pain)

muscular malaise (myalgic malaise)

but more seriously

chronically recurrent

inflammation of the brainstem and the spinal cord,

leading to neurodegeneration,

as evidenced by the presence of a neurotropic retrovirus (XMRV) having molecular interplay with a neurotropic human herpesvirus called Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant A (HHV-6A), which is a virus that has been found nearly exclusively in oncogenic (cancer-causing) diseases, and just in order to put facts in the right perspective, Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant A (HHV-6A) should not be confused with Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant B (HHV-6B), the latter being a human herpes virus, not exclusively found in oncogenic (cancer-causing) retroviral diseases, but also in the general population, as evidenced by the fact that Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant B (HHV-6B) has been found to have no neurotropism for astrocytes, whereas Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant A (HHV-6A), nearly exclusively found in oncogenic (cancer-causing) retroviral diseases, does indeed have neurotropism for astrocytes,

so

with

all of the above

induced

or

caused by

the retrovirus

called

XMRV

causing

what should be called CFS/ME

or to put it right

causing

XMRV-induced CFS/ME

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General Conclusion :

XMRV & HHV-6A : "Just because you can't find it in the blood doesn't mean it isn't there."

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Literature

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Hyperserotonemia in autism

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18405062

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Further, some investigations are dealing with association studies of hyperserotonemia to symptom patterns related to autism. The whole blood serotonin (5HT) ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0924977X00800528

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Hyperserotonemia in autism ... 5-HT levels ...... Most CFS patients have headaches ... serotonin and melatonin metabolism ...

www.cancertutor.com/Autism/ComprehensiveGuide.doc

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The pathophysiology of CFS is related to peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, most often located at the motor nerve terminal or intramuscular arborization. ...

content.karger.com/produktedb/produkte.asp?typ=fulltext&file...

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Chronic Parvovirus B19 Infection Resulting in Chronic Fatigue ...

SK Jacobson - 1997 - Cited by 27

complaints of disabling lethargy and fatigue, headaches, and irregular fevers. ....

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS [5]; debilitating fatigue and ....

Kerr JR, ...

www.jstor.org/stable/4460003

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Variant-Specific Tropism of Human Herpesvirus 6 in Human Astrocytes

D Donati - 2005 - Cited by 26

neurotropic potential of HHV-6A (19) and is in agreement ...

astrocytes where HHV-6A (GS strain) was associated with a productive virus infection (20). ...

jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/79/15/9439.pdf

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We have shown that HHV-6A reactivates to productive infection in lymph nodes of virtually all HIV infected individuals ...

gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/102247683.html

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Risk of HHV-6A Primary and Recurrent Infections ...

J Ongrádi - 1999

Further in vivo longitudinal studies on the interaction between HHV-6A and HIV are needed. These might lead to the introduction of anti-HHV-6A chemotherapy ...

journals.lww.com › Home › November 1, 1999 -

Volume 22 - Issue 3

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HHV-6A shares 67% homology with cytomegalovirus

www.ncf-net.org/forum/ncftruths.html

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Thus we propose that HHV-6A and HIV become locked in a synergistic cycle ...

www.ivpresearch.org/ICAAC_2000.htm

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E Csoma - 2006 - Cited by 3

Our results demonstrated that HHV-6A significantly suppressed HIV-1 replication in ....

The interaction between HHV-6A and HIV-1 was examined in macrophages ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0168170206001821

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Extensive research shows that HHV-6A dramatically destroys the immune system in a way that HIV does not. ...

www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/324/7331/237

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HHV-6A was shown to dramatically accelerate progression from HIV to full blown AIDS in macaques by causing an early depletion in both CD4+ and CD8+ cells ...

hhv-6foundation.webs.com/inducedimmune.htm

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However, coinfection of these cells with both HHV-6 variant A (HHV-6A) and HIV led to the release of infectious HIV particles. ...

www.aegis.org/pubs/aidswkly/2002/AW020411.html

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[Human herpesvirus 6 A enhances HIV-1 replication in vitro by ...

J Ongrádi - 1999

Simultaneous HHV-6A infection can activate HIV-1 latency and promote AIDS progression, ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10628199

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P Lusso - 2007 - Cited by 12

... HHV-6A as a promoting factor in the progression to AIDS (4). HHV-6A shares with HIV-1 a primary tropism for CD4 T ...

list.uvm.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A3...L...E...

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by DL Peterson - 2006

A subset of patients with CFS-like illness & HHV-6A positivity have been followed carefully for 5-22 years. ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1386653206700907

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He does not tell them they have CFS; he tells them they have HHV-6A subacute encephalopathy. Others have begun calling it the Peterson Syndrome. ...

www.globenewswire.com/newsroom/?d=73041

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D Di Luca - 1995 - Cited by 52

... CFS is the second example of a human disease in which the prevalence of HHV-6A is increased. ...

jcm.asm.org/cgi/reprint/33/6/1660.pdf

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Most Americans have yet to be told about the devastating role of HHV-6A in AIDS and CFS.

www.rethinking.org/bmj/response_55928.html

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HHV-6A activates EBV virus and Montoya found both elevated. Most CFS patients have HHV-6A ...

www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-386443/Is-cure-ME.html

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Ablashi asserts that HHV-6A is the predominant strain in CFS, multiple sclerosis (MS) and AIDS patients.

aboutmecfs.org/Rsrch/HHV6Disease.aspx

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Those who carry HHV-6A are much sicker than those who carry HHV-6B. ...

www.lightconnection.us/Archive/nov04_colums.htm

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Dr. Ablashi reported that when the correct testing method is used, there is ...

Warned Peterson, "Just because you can't find it in the blood doesn't mean it ...

He does not tell them they have CFS; he tells them they have HHV-6A ...

www.prohealth.com/library/showarticle.cfm?id=6291&t...

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Warned Peterson, "Just because you can't find it in the blood doesn't mean it isn't there."

www.globenewswire.com/newsroom/?d=73041

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XMRV : "If it had been there, we would have found it"

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HHV-6A "Just because you can't find it in the blood doesn't mean it isn't there."

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Of note are the comments about how hard it is to prove active HHV-6A infection. ... "Just because you can't find it in the blood doesn't mean it isn't there ...

www.prohealth.com/fibromyalgia/blog/boardDetail_temp.cfm?id...

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Detection of an Infectious Retrovirus, XMRV, in Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Originally published in Science Express on 8 October

2009

Science 23 October 2009:

Vol. 326. no. 5952, pp. 585 - 589

Vincent C. Lombardi et al.

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1179052

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chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

jcp.bmjjournals.com › Table of Contents

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Active Infection by Variant A of Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A) Causes Destruction of Lymphoid Tissues of HIV Infected Individuals.

gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/102247683.html

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Detection of human herpesvirus-6 in cerebrospinal fluid of ...
3 Mar 2009 ...

Therefore, CNS tissue destruction may be a ...

HHV-6A virus was detected. ...

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ana.21611

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XMRV infection as the cause, and CFS/ME as the consequence.

XMRV infection causes [1] retroviral infection of the bone marrow cells, causing (a) PRCA-related Anemia, (causing lethargy and outright malaise) and (b) neutropenia in the blood, and simultaneously, neutrophil accumulation in tissues, the latter mainly in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and in the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract, but sometimes also in other organs, such as e.g. in the lungs. Furthermore, XMRV infection also causes [2] the stirring up of the serotonin and melatonin metabolism, causing hyperserotonemia, (causing outright agitation, or hyperexcitability), causing hypermelatonemia, (causing outright numbness, or hypersedation), with the stirring up of the serotonin and melatonin metabolism causing on a chronically recurrent basis : extremely debilitating exhaustion, lethargy, or to put it in an outright understatement : fatigue, leading to a syndrome with an understatement kind of name : Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, but nevertheless having a more relevant kind of name being 'Myalgic Encephalomyelitis', causing muscular malaise (myalgic disturbance), but more seriously, chronically recurrent inflammation of the brainstem and the spinal cord, leading to neurodegeneration, as evidenced by the presence of a neurotropic retrovirus (XMRV), having molecular interplay with a neurotropic human herpesvirus called Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant A (HHV-6A), which is a virus that has been found nearly exclusively in oncogenic (cancer-causing) diseases, and just in order to put facts in the right perspective, Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant A (HHV-6A) should not be confused with Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant B (HHV-6B), the latter being a human herpes virus, not exclusively found in oncogenic (cancer-causing) retroviral diseases, but also in the general population, as evidenced by the fact that Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant B (HHV-6B) has been found to have no neurotropism for astrocytes, whereas Human Herpes Virus Six, Variant A (HHV-6A) - nearly exclusively found in oncogenic (cancer-causing) retroviral diseases - does indeed have neurotropism for astrocytes. So with all of the above induced or caused by the retrovirus, called XMRV, causing what should be called CFS/ME, or to put it right : XMRV-induced CFS/ME.

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General Conclusion :

XMRV & HHV-6A : "Just because you can't find it in the blood doesn't mean it isn't there."

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XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME

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General Conclusion

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HIV-1 + HHV-6A = AIDS
HIV-1 + HHV-6A = AIDS
HIV-1 + HHV-6A = AIDS

XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME
XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME
XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME

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HHV-6A = highly neuropathogenic
HHV-6A = highly neuropathogenic
HHV-6A = highly neuropathogenic

Astrocytes are a target for HIV-1 in the brain
Astrocytes are a target for HIV-1 in the brain
Astrocytes are a target for HIV-1 in the brain

Astrocytes are a target for XMRV in the brain
Astrocytes are a target for XMRV in the brain
Astrocytes are a target for XMRV in the brain

the importance of brainstem astrocytes
the importance of brainstem astrocytes
the importance of brainstem astrocytes

in the pathophysiology of
in the pathophysiology of
in the pathophysiology of

inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.
inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.
inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

XMRV infection
XMRV infection
XMRV infection

XMRV infection : mostly brainstem and spinal cord
XMRV infection : mostly brainstem and spinal cord
XMRV infection : mostly brainstem and spinal cord

the role of astrocytes in XMRV neuropathogenesis.
the role of astrocytes in XMRV neuropathogenesis.
the role of astrocytes in XMRV neuropathogenesis.

astrocytes and their contribution to
astrocytes and their contribution to
astrocytes and their contribution to

neural regeneration in the CNS
neural regeneration in the CNS
neural regeneration in the CNS

HIV-1 infected astrocytes
HIV-1 infected astrocytes
HIV-1 infected astrocytes

XMRV infected astrocytes
XMRV infected astrocytes
XMRV infected astrocytes

A regulatory role for astrocytes in XMRV encephalitis.
A regulatory role for astrocytes in XMRV encephalitis.
A regulatory role for astrocytes in XMRV encephalitis.

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XMRV-induced neuronal injury
XMRV-induced neuronal injury
XMRV-induced neuronal injury

in the developing brain
in the developing brain
in the developing brain

may cause autism
may cause autism
may cause autism

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Literature

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Astrocytes play numerous roles in maintaining the structure, metabolism and function of the brain. They provide nutrients to neurons, are integral in the formation of the blood-brain-barrier, and have essential functions in controlling neuronal activity.

http://www.physorg.com/news138451378.html

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Normal astrocytes are star-shaped, with octopus-like tentacles extending outward to ensheath neurons and their synapses. When they are exposed to trauma, stroke or neurodegenerative processes, they become enlarged symmetrically, generally retaining their original form.

http://www.physorg.com/news138451378.html

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The studies also suggest that growth factors produced by astrocytes may be critical in regenerating brain or spinal tissue that has been damaged by trauma or disease.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/05/020506074326.htm

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astrocytes ... promoting neurogenesis
astrocytes ... promoting neurogenesis
astrocytes ... promoting neurogenesis

www.hhmi.org/news/stevens2.html

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the astrocytes’ contribution to neuronal development

www.hhmi.org/news/stevens2.html

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"Astrocytes, so-named because of their starlike shape, are glial cells, a term which is derived from the Latin word for 'glue,'" explained Stevens. "They fill in the space between neurons, and they have long been known to have a supportive role, which includes taking up neurotransmitters released by neurons. They also maintain the extracellular environment with the right concentrations of chemicals to support neurons."

www.hhmi.org/news/stevens2.html

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Astrocytes are a target for HIV-1 in the brain, and reports have shown that from 0.8% to as many as 20% of astrocytes are infected by HIV-1 in vivo. ...

www.amc.edu/Research/IMD/imdresearcher.cfm?ID=177

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Infection with HIV alone failed
to trigger
viral protein expression on
cultured placental cells

However, coinfection of these cells
However, coinfection of these cells
However, coinfection of these cells
with both
HHV-6 variant A (HHV-6A)
HHV-6 variant A (HHV-6A)
HHV-6 variant A (HHV-6A)
and
HIV
HIV
HIV
led to the release of
infectious HIV particles.
infectious HIV particles.
infectious HIV particles.
...

www.aegis.org/pubs/aidswkly/2002/AW020411.html

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Astrocytes are a major source of inflammatory mediators and are implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/17/6/734

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vulnerability of brainstem astrocytes

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12782105

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energy deprivation syndromes in the brain may alter the function of a few key proteins that conspire to selectively injure brainstem astrocytes. ...

deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/62217

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spinal cord and brainstem astrocytes

dev.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/121/5/1283.pdf

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the importance of brainstem astrocytes

f1000medicine.com/article/id/1089789

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MuLV infection in these areas (mostly brainstem and spinal cord). [Y Persidsky - 2005] ...

www.psychologytoday.com/blog/complementary.../comments

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Brainstem perfusion is impaired in chronic fatigue syndrome.

Costa DC

QJM. 1995 Nov;88(11):767-73.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8542261

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Neuroscience: Astrocytes as aide-memoires ...

M Santello - 2010

But astrocytes are not silent; they display another type of excitability ...

www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7278/full/463169a.html

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A regulatory role for astrocytes in HIV-1 encephalitis.

HS Nottet - 1995 - Cited by 105

A regulatory role for astrocytes in HIV-1 encephalitis.

www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/abstract/154/7/3567

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Regulation of HIV-1 infection in astrocytes:

M Fiala - 1996 - Cited by 30

regulatory role for astrocytes in HIV-1 encephalitis.

J. Immunol 154 3567-3581. Ovod V, Lagerstedt A,

Ranki A, Gombert FO, Spohn R,. Tahtinenen M, Jung

G, ...

informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13550289609146878

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Gene Expression Profiles of HIV-1-Infected Glia and Brain: Toward ...

A Borjabad - 2009

Functional genomics, in conjunction with other approaches, may help clarify the role of astrocytes in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19697136

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SY Kim - 2004 - Cited by 23

The role of astrocytes in HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD) is not well understood. HIV-1 binds efficiently to astrocytes but infects only a small fraction of ...

www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/jni/article/.../abstract

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regulatory role for astrocytes in HIV-1 encephalitis

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022510X02002071

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HIV-1-induced neuronal injury in the developing brain

LG Epstein - 1999 - Cited by 46

astrocytes in HIV-1 encephalitis but not microglia

www.jleukbio.org/cgi/reprint/65/4/453.pdf

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Furthermore, BAG3 protein was detectable in the cytoplasm of reactive astrocytes in HIV-1-associated encephalopathy biopsies, suggesting that induction of ...

direct.bl.uk/research/53/29/RN200648662.html

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J Ahlqvist - 2005 - Cited by 27

Furthermore, a neuropathogenic role for ...

particularly the HHV-6A variant, is highly neurotropic ...

informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13550280591002379

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The Role of Astrocytes in Neural Regeneration ...

in the actions of astrocytes and their contribution to neural regeneration in the CNS. ...

Astrocytes also seem to play an inhibitory role in the neural .....

Neural Development and Regeneration: Cellular and Molecular Aspects. ...

www.scribd.com/.../The-Role-of-Astrocytes-in-Neural-Regeneration

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HIV-1 infected astrocytes

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2579774/

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Both clinical and experimental evidence suggest that HHV-6A may foster the progression of HIV disease toward AIDS.

hhv-6foundation.webs.com/progressionfactor.htm

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XMRV-infected Astrocytes destroy the Blood-Brain Barrier in ME

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General Conclusion

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Normal functioning, unimpaired, uninfected astrocytes are the basis for a normal functioning, unimpaired and healthy blood-brain barrier (BBB).

Normal functioning, unimpaired, uninfected astrocytes are the basis for a normal functioning, unimpaired and healthy brain.

XMRV-infected astrocytes contribute to the destruction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function.

Healthy astrocytes contribute to blood-brain barrier (BBB) formation and maintenance, but unhealthy XMRV-infected astrocytes contribute to blood-brain barrier impairment during encephalomyelitis in CFS/ME.

Astrocytes are a target for XMRV in the brainstem and in the spinal cord in CFS/ME. Healthy, still uninfected spinal cord and brainstem astrocytes contribute to neural regeneration in the CNS, but XMRV-infected astrocytes are implicated in inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease in general, and in XMRV-induced inflammation and neurodegeneraton in CFS/ME in particular.

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Literature

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Astrocyte-endothelial interactions at the blood-brain barrier ...

NJ Abbott - 2006 - Cited by 593

Here, we explore specific interactions between the brain endothelium, astrocytes and neurons that may regulate blood–brain barrier function. ...

www.nature.com › Journal home › Archive › Review

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Astrocytes induce blood-brain barrier properties in endothelial cells.

RC Janzer - Cited by 859

In this report we provide direct evidence that astrocytes are capable of inducing blood-brain barrier properties in non-neural endothelial cells in vivo. ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3543687

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Astrocytic contributions to blood-brain barrier (BBB) formation by ...

I Isobe - 1996 - Cited by 31

Astrocytic contribution of endothelial cell monolayer permeability was examined in two blood-brain barrier (BBB) models, using the coculture in a double ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0197018695001425

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Blood Brain Barrier. Astrocytes and Their Role in Formation and Maintenance of the Blood Brain Barrier, Michelle Olsen, Ph.D. The blood brain barrier (BBB) ...

glia-uab.infomedia.com/content.asp?id=113343

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IngentaConnect Loss of astrocyte polarity marks bloodbrain barrier ...

K Wolburg-Buchholz - 2009

Loss of astrocyte polarity marks blood-brain barrier impairment during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/401/2009/00000118/.../00000558

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XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME

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General Conclusion

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HIV-1 + HHV-6A = AIDS
HIV-1 + HHV-6A = AIDS
HIV-1 + HHV-6A = AIDS

XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME
XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME
XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME

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XMRV neurotropism: evidence that astrocytes are the primary target cells.
XMRV neurotropism: evidence that astrocytes are the primary target cells.
XMRV neurotropism: evidence that astrocytes are the primary target cells.

The greater neurotropism of HHV-6A in human astrocytes
The greater neurotropism of HHV-6A in human astrocytes
The greater neurotropism of HHV-6A in human astrocytes

HHV-6A positivity in CFS/ME
HHV-6A positivity in CFS/ME
HHV-6A positivity in CFS/ME

HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype

commonly reactivated in AIDS and CFS/ME
commonly reactivated in AIDS and CFS/ME
commonly reactivated in AIDS and CFS/ME

HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype

commonly reactivated in serious chronic disease
commonly reactivated in serious chronic disease
commonly reactivated in serious chronic disease

HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype

never found to be reactivated in acute disease
never found to be reactivated in acute disease
never found to be reactivated in acute disease

The Prevalence of Persisting High Level Serum HHV-6A DNA

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General Conclusion

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The Prevalence of Persisting High Level Serum HHV-6A DNA :

only 4 cases with HHV-6A (4/653) => 0.6%

(found in the HHV-6A-related study by Katherine N. Ward, published in the Journal of Medical Virology,
2005 Aug;76(4):563-70)

General Conclusion :

persisting high level serum HHV-6A DNA
persisting high level serum HHV-6A DNA
persisting high level serum HHV-6A DNA

only in 0.6% of the general population
only in 0.6% of the general population
only in 0.6% of the general population

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the prevalence of
the prevalence of
the prevalence of

persisting high level serum HHV-6A DNA
persisting high level serum HHV-6A DNA
persisting high level serum HHV-6A DNA

only in 0.6% of the general population
only in 0.6% of the general population
only in 0.6% of the general population

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the prevalence of CFS/ME is 0.6% of the general population
the prevalence of CFS/ME is 0.6% of the general population
the prevalence of CFS/ME is 0.6% of the general population

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the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is 0.6% of the general population
the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is 0.6% of the general population
the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is 0.6% of the general population

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Literature

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Journal of Medical Virology

Volume 76 Issue 4, Pages 563 - 570

Published Online: 23 Jun 2005

Unexpected occasional persistence of high levels of HHV-6 DNA in sera: Detection of variants A and B

Katherine N. Ward

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15977239

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by KN Ward - 2006 - Cited by 47

Thus, in young children, serum viral DNA was due to either primary infection with HHV-6 (variant B, not A) or persistent high-level HHV-6A or HHV-6B DNA ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448653/

high level serum DNA [mean titre 4.0; 4 HHV-6A; 6 HHV-6B] was found in 1.5% (10/653) of the Serum Bank Children.

www.cababstractsplus.org/abstracts/Abstract.aspx?AcNo=20053140719

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

the point prevalence of CFS was 0.6%

CFS/ME

www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/EHC/ehc74.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Prevalence of Chronic Widespread Pain and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

SH Kim - 2008 - Cited by 4

the point prevalence of CFS was 0.6%

informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10582450802161838

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Adult HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rate (Aged 15-49)

Switzerland, 0.6%, 2007

United States of America, 0.6%, 2007

www.globalhealthfacts.org/topic.jsp?i=3

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes

Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes

Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes

Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General Conclusion

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The expression of serotonin transporter mRNA
The expression of serotonin transporter mRNA
The expression of serotonin transporter mRNA

detected in normal human astrocytes
detected in normal human astrocytes
detected in normal human astrocytes

Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes
Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes
Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes

However, ...
However, ...
However, ...

hyperserotonemia
hyperserotonemia
hyperserotonemia

abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood
abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood
abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood

in CFS/ME

caused by
caused by
caused by

XMRV-induced Serotonin Dysregulation
XMRV-induced Serotonin Dysregulation
XMRV-induced Serotonin Dysregulation

Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes

causing

hyperserotonemia
hyperserotonemia
hyperserotonemia

abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood
abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood
abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood

in CFS/ME
in CFS/ME
in CFS/ME

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

XMRV infection
XMRV infection
XMRV infection

causing
causing
causing

XMRV-infected Astrocytes
XMRV-infected Astrocytes
XMRV-infected Astrocytes

causing
causing
causing

astrocyte inflammation
astrocyte inflammation
astrocyte inflammation

causing
causing
causing

astrocyte apoptosis
astrocyte apoptosis
astrocyte apoptosis

resulting in impairment of astrocytes cell function
resulting in impairment of astrocytes cell function
resulting in impairment of astrocytes cell function

causing
causing
causing

blood-brain barrier disruption
blood-brain barrier disruption
blood-brain barrier disruption

neurodegeneration in the brainstem and the spinal cord
neurodegeneration in the brainstem and the spinal cord
neurodegeneration in the brainstem and the spinal cord

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CNS injury caused by XMRV infection
CNS injury caused by XMRV infection
CNS injury caused by XMRV infection

Neutrophils have a central role
Neutrophils have a central role
Neutrophils have a central role
in the inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS).
in the inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS).
in the inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS).

astrocyte apoptosis :
astrocyte apoptosis :
astrocyte apoptosis :
this mechanism
this mechanism
this mechanism
may play a role in
may play a role in
may play a role in
CNS injury caused by XMRV infection
CNS injury caused by XMRV infection
CNS injury caused by XMRV infection

Astrocyte apoptosis: implications for neuroprotection.
Astrocyte apoptosis: implications for neuroprotection.
Astrocyte apoptosis: implications for neuroprotection.

a positive correlation between astrocyte apoptosis and neurodegeneration
a positive correlation between astrocyte apoptosis and neurodegeneration
a positive correlation between astrocyte apoptosis and neurodegeneration

MuLV-induced disease as neurodegeneration
MuLV-induced disease as neurodegeneration
MuLV-induced disease as neurodegeneration

occurring in the brainstem and the spinal cord
occurring in the brainstem and the spinal cord
occurring in the brainstem and the spinal cord

XMRV-induced disease as neurodegeneration
XMRV-induced disease as neurodegeneration
XMRV-induced disease as neurodegeneration

occurring in the brainstem and the spinal cord
occurring in the brainstem and the spinal cord
occurring in the brainstem and the spinal cord

XMRV-infected astrocytes
XMRV-infected astrocytes
XMRV-infected astrocytes

Apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes
Apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes
Apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes

is induced by XMRV
is induced by XMRV
is induced by XMRV

inflammation induces apoptosis
inflammation induces apoptosis
inflammation induces apoptosis

inflammation induces apoptosis of astrocytes
inflammation induces apoptosis of astrocytes
inflammation induces apoptosis of astrocytes

astrocytes during neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration
astrocytes during neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration
astrocytes during neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration

inflammation-induced apoptosis is an on-going process
inflammation-induced apoptosis is an on-going process
inflammation-induced apoptosis is an on-going process

resulting in impairment of astrocytes cell function
resulting in impairment of astrocytes cell function
resulting in impairment of astrocytes cell function

promoting
promoting
promoting

blood-brain barrier disruption
blood-brain barrier disruption
blood-brain barrier disruption

injures brainstem and spinal cord astrocytes
injures brainstem and spinal cord astrocytes
injures brainstem and spinal cord astrocytes

XMRV-induced astrocytes apoptosis
XMRV-induced astrocytes apoptosis
XMRV-induced astrocytes apoptosis

Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes
Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes
Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes

Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes
Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes

hyperserotonemia
hyperserotonemia
hyperserotonemia

abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood
abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood
abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood

delayed apoptosis of astrocytes
delayed apoptosis of astrocytes
delayed apoptosis of astrocytes

post-exertional malaise in chronic fatigue syndrome
post-exertional malaise in chronic fatigue syndrome
post-exertional malaise in chronic fatigue syndrome

delayed apoptosis of astrocytes
delayed apoptosis of astrocytes
delayed apoptosis of astrocytes

brainstem astrocytes
brainstem astrocytes
brainstem astrocytes

brainstem and spinal cord astrocytes
brainstem and spinal cord astrocytes
brainstem and spinal cord astrocytes

predominant brainstem and spinal cord involvement
predominant brainstem and spinal cord involvement
predominant brainstem and spinal cord involvement

XMRV neurotropism: evidence that astrocytes are the primary target cells.
XMRV neurotropism: evidence that astrocytes are the primary target cells.
XMRV neurotropism: evidence that astrocytes are the primary target cells.

The greater neurotropism of HHV-6A in human astrocytes
The greater neurotropism of HHV-6A in human astrocytes
The greater neurotropism of HHV-6A in human astrocytes

HHV-6A positivity in CFS/ME
HHV-6A positivity in CFS/ME
HHV-6A positivity in CFS/ME

HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype

commonly reactivated in AIDS and CFS/ME
commonly reactivated in AIDS and CFS/ME
commonly reactivated in AIDS and CFS/ME

HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype

commonly reactivated in serious chronic disease
commonly reactivated in serious chronic disease
commonly reactivated in serious chronic disease

HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype
HHV-6A is the subtype

never found to be reactivated in acute disease
never found to be reactivated in acute disease
never found to be reactivated in acute disease

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

hyperserotonemia
hyperserotonemia
hyperserotonemia

conversion of serotonin to melatonin
conversion of serotonin to melatonin
conversion of serotonin to melatonin

hypermelatonemia
hypermelatonemia
hypermelatonemia

abnormally high levels of melatonin in the blood
abnormally high levels of melatonin in the blood
abnormally high levels of melatonin in the blood

A waxing and waning pattern
A waxing and waning pattern
A waxing and waning pattern

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Retrovirus-induced spongiform myeloencephalopathy ...

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... retroviral MuLV .... astrocytes ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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MuLV isolates, a variety of closely related murine ...

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Retrovirus-induced spongiform myeloencephalopathy ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Viral load ...

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MuLV Encephalitis ...

Spinal cord. Brainstem ...

astrocytes ...

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Retrovirus-induced spongiform myeloencephalopathy ...

the lumbosacral spinal cord, the brainstem, and deep cerebellar nuclei ...

retroviral MuLV sequences under ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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brainstem, spinal cord ... infected with the cytotoxic retrovirus
... MuLV ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Retroviruses ... the spinal cord, dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, and brainstem. ... MuLV leads to infection of a wide variety of cell types in the nervous system, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and spinal ganglia ...

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HHV-6A GS-infected astrocytes ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HHV-6A gene expression in T cells and primary human astrocytes ...

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R Alvarez-Lafuente - 2008

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) ...

G Mlechkovich - 2007

There is no acute disease currently known to be caused by HHV-6A. ...

human herpesvirus 6A in astrocytes and in T-cells. ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Differential HHV-6A gene expression in T cells and primary human astrocytes ...

www.springerlink.com/index/x27621j638246m48.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by D Donati - 2003 - Cited by 63

whereas HHV-6A has been ...

www.neurology.org/cgi/content/full/61/10/1405

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

... Variant-specific tropism of human herpesvirus 6 in human astrocytes. ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

infectious human herpesvirus 6A virions ...

M Hammarstedt - 2007

... in nucleus of human herpesvirus 6A in astrocytes

and in T-cells. ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2164960/

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

To differentiate between HHV-6A and B ...

brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/.../516?...HHV...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HHV-6A ... expressed in human fetal astrocytes ...

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/rmv.465

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HHV-6A ... Retroviruses have been candidates for a

cause of multiple sclerosis ... Infection of primary human fetal astrocytes by human herpesvirus. ...

journals.lww.com › Home › June 1999 - Volume 12 - Issue 3

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis ...

R Alvarez-Lafuente - 2004

In those patients with ... an active infection only, HHV-6A ... retrovirus ...

Innate Immune Responses in Human Microglia and Astrocytes ...

archneur.highwire.org/cgi/content/full/61/10/1523

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Path to a Cure

Interview with MS virologist

Steven Jacobson

variant in the MS subjects was HHV-6A, which has been associated with the .... the oligodendrocyte and/or the astrocyte ...

www.acceleratedcure.org/downloads/interview-jacobson.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by M ENBOM - 2001

These findings suggest the possibility of a role for HHV-6A rather than HHV-6B also in MS, ... primary human fetal astrocytes ... retrovirus-infected ...

informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365540110027015

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

only HHV-6A infects and depletes CDS+ T lymphocytes ...

infects cultured primary human progenitor-derived astrocytes (Donati, et al. ... the retroviruses expressing HHV-6A ...

www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?KEY=07%2F103988&IA...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The life cycle of HHV-6A in astrocytes ... In the case of retroviral Gag-particles, which assemble and bud at the plasma ...

diss.kib.ki.se/2007/978-91-7357-214-9/thesis.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Correlation Between HHV-6 Reactivation and Multiple Sclerosis ...

by S Chapenko - 2003

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. ....

HHV-6A in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Infect Dis 182:1321– ....

novel retrovirus repeatedly isolated from patients with multiple sclerosis. ...

www.eid.ac.cn/MirrorResources/5169/HHV%206%20MS%20Murovska.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by S Dewhurst - 2004

in vitro (particularly for HHV-6A), which T cells and the SupT1 cell line includes primary T cells, NK cells and astrocytes, as well as continuous cell lines of T cells, B cells, ..... other anti-retroviral drugs, including the ...

journals.cambridge.org/production/action/cjoGetFulltext?fulltextid...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by PB Challoner - 1995

herpesviruses, retroviruses, ... with primers that detected 10 molecules of HHV-6A .... in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and macrophages, particularly in ...

www.pnas.org/content/92/16/7440.full.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Molecular biology and clinical associations of Roseoloviruses ...

by E Caselli - 2007

but only HHV-6A produces ...

www.microbiologica.net/mb/pdf/2007/3/1618_Micro3_02.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

... the study of human viral and retroviral pathogens:

gene .... HHV-6A gene expression in T cells and primary human astrocytes ...

www.mdphd.pitt.edu/pdfs/faculty/nih_Ghedin.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by S Meeuwsen - 2003

... multiple sclerosis .... distribution and variant characterization of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6: increased prevalence of HHV-6A in ... astrocytes ...

dare.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/1871/9004/2/bijlage-referenties-hoofdstuk1.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 infection of astrocytes. ... Localization of retrovirus in the central nervous system of a patient co-infected with .... VZV, CMV, HHV-6A/-6B, and EBV DNAs in cerebrospinal fluid ...

www.jneurovirol.com/search_index.php

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Brains and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of multiple ...

G Mameli - 2007

HHV-6A ... was observed on cells resembling both astrocytes .... extracellular MSRV endogenous retrovirus particles ...

vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/88/1/264.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

herpesviruses, retroviruses, ... white matter, optic nerve, brainstem, spinal cord, ... 10 molecules of HHV-6A .... in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and macrophages, particularly in ...

www.pnas.org/content/92/16/7440.full.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

30 Nov 2005 ... Human Herpes Virus 6 variant A (HHV-6A) directly linked to multiple sclerosis-like illness. ... cerebral cortex, brain stem, cerebellum spinal cord, ... Astrocytes ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Human Herpesvirus 6

DK Braun - 1997

Primary human fetal astrocytes can be infected by both HHV-6A and HHV-6B in cell culture ... brain stem, and spinal cord. The leading hypothesis ... influenza viruses to herpesviruses and a retrovirus

...
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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by H KUUSISTO

the cerebellum, optic nerve, brain stem and spinal cord (SC). ... whether patients with MS had been exposed to human retroviruses (HRVs) ... There is, however, a recent finding suggesting HHV6a to be pathognomic for MS ... some reactive astrocytes and microglia of acute lesions (Goodman et al 2003). ...

acta.uta.fi/pdf/978-951-44-7447-7.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by A Bonetti - 2009

anatomical site (e.g. brain stem, spinal cord) may have a strong impact ..... of HHV-6A ... ASTROCYTES. Astrocytes have been referred to as the backbone of the CNS ... Antibodies against a human endogenous retrovirus ...

https://oa.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/47620/genetica.pdf?sequence...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

... astrocytes are target cells of cytokines. Astrocytes also support the ...... retrovirus pathogenesis.... the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, ... HHV-6A ...

informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/13550280009018307

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Differential expression of HHV-6A genes was observed between CD4+ T lymphocytes and primary human astrocytes," the authors reported. ...

www.newsrx.com/newsletters/Pain-and.../073120063331868W.html

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The detailed analysis using novel, fluorescent-labeled HHV-6A or HHV-6B reagents demonstrated ... about the actions of serotonin [5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] in this region ...

www.jneurosci.org/abstractbrowser/24.20.abstractbrowser.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HHV-6A, have been suggested to play etiological role [16332987, 16365449]. ... serotonin and norepinephrine in both cortical and subcortical ... in astrocytes ...

www.mindandmuscle.net/forum/index.php?showtopic=39601

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Results: HHV-6A DNA was detected in the serum by real time PCR. Infection with ...... loss and activated astrocytes compatible with HHV6 infection. ...

www.sanp.ch/pdf/2008/2008-04/2008-04-abstracts.PDF

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

induction of latency by HHV-6A in oligodendrocytes.

www.brenda-enzymes.org/php/result_flat.php4?ecno=3.4.17.10

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The vectors were tested after electroporation and passage in T cells with or without helper HHV-6A superinfections. The results were as follows. ...

worldwidescience.org/topicpages/k/Krypton+78+Target.html

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

E Hoesli - 1995 - Cited by 6

Astrocytes in explant cultures did not take up 3H-noradrenaline and 3H-serotonin whereas astrocytes in primary cultures showed heavy uptake of both ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8770662

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Action of dopamine and serotonin on the membrane potential of ...

by L Hösli - 1987 - Cited by 18

2A-C. Effects of antagonists on the hyperpolarizations by dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) on two different astrocytes. A ...

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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes -- Watson et al. 23 (1): 790.2 ...

by C Watson - 2009

Astrocytes are also known to contribute to the regulation of synaptic serotonin concentration through uptake of serotonin via SERT, and the subsequent ...

www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/23/1.../790.2

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes
Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes
Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes
Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes

Serotonin Regulation by Astrocytes -- Watson et al. 23 (1): 790.2 ...

by C Watson - 2009

Astrocytes are also known to contribute to the regulation of synaptic serotonin concentration through uptake of serotonin via SERT, and the subsequent ...

http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/23/1_MeetingAbstracts...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Astrocyte apoptosis: implications for neuroprotection.

by K Takuma - 2004 - Cited by 182

Accordingly, impairment in these astrocyte functions can critically influence neuronal survival. Recent studies show that astrocyte apoptosis may contribute ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15063528

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astrocyte apoptosis ...
astrocyte apoptosis ...
astrocyte apoptosis ...
this mechanism
this mechanism
this mechanism
may play a role in
may play a role in
may play a role in
CNS injury caused by HIV-1 infection
CNS injury caused by HIV-1 infection
CNS injury caused by HIV-1 infection

Astrocyte apoptosis induced by HIV-1 transactivation of the c ...

by J He - 1997 - Cited by 40

These studies demonstrate that c-Kit can induce astrocyte apoptosis and suggest that this mechanism may play a role in CNS injury caused by HIV-1 infection. ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20549/

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

hydrogen peroxide-induced astrocytes apoptosis
hydrogen peroxide-induced astrocytes apoptosis
hydrogen peroxide-induced astrocytes apoptosis

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0168010209001217

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

apoptotic astrocytes
apoptotic astrocytes
apoptotic astrocytes
was significantly greater in the HIV-positive groups
was significantly greater in the HIV-positive groups
was significantly greater in the HIV-positive groups

Correlation between neurological progression and astrocyte ...
level of astrocyte apoptosis and a consequent increase in the levels of ... of apoptotic astrocytes was significantly greater in the HIV-positive groups ...

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ana.1011

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a positive correlation between
a positive correlation between
a positive correlation between
astrocyte apoptosis and rapid disease progression
astrocyte apoptosis and rapid disease progression
astrocyte apoptosis and rapid disease progression
in persons with neurodegenerative diseases. ...
in persons with neurodegenerative diseases. ...
in persons with neurodegenerative diseases. ...

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3{beta}-Mediated

Apoptosis of Primary ...

by JF Sanchez - 2003 - Cited by 61

Recent studies have revealed a positive correlation between astrocyte apoptosis and rapid disease progression in persons with neurodegenerative diseases. ...

mcb.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/23/13/4649

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

delayed apoptosis of astrocytes
delayed apoptosis of astrocytes
delayed apoptosis of astrocytes

grande.nal.usda.gov/ibids/index.php?mode2=detail&origin...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes
Apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes
Apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes
is induced by HIV-1
is induced by HIV-1
is induced by HIV-1

www.pnas.org/content/94/8/3954.full.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Correlation between
Correlation between
Correlation between
neurological progression and
neurological progression and
neurological progression and
astrocyte apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia.
astrocyte apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia.
astrocyte apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia.

Retrovirology | Full text | Apoptosis of uninfected cells induced ..

by B Ahr - 2004 - Cited by 36

Correlation between neurological progression and astrocyte apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. ...

www.retrovirology.com/content/1/1/12

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HIV-1-infected astrocytes
HIV-1-infected astrocytes
HIV-1-infected astrocytes

BiomedExperts: HIV-1-infected astrocytes and the microglial proteome.
'HIV-1-infected astrocytes and the microglial proteome.' on BiomedExperts. Find the right expert or researcher in 1.8 Million pre-calculated research ...

www.biomedexperts.com/.../HIV-1-
infected_astrocytes_and_the_microglial_proteome

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

the effects of HIV-1-infected astrocytes
the effects of HIV-1-infected astrocytes
the effects of HIV-1-infected astrocytes
on neurotoxicity
on neurotoxicity
on neurotoxicity

HIV-1-Infected Astrocytes and the Microglial Proteome

by T Wang - 2008 - Cited by 7

To assess the effects of HIV-1-infected astrocytes on neurotoxicity of infected microglia ..... strated that HIV-1/VSV infected astrocytes accelerated and ...

www.springerlink.com/index/r5864r0w4816xu04.pdf

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by A Marter - 2008 - Cited by 1

serotonin dysregulation ... CFS. ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1555415508001311

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Neuroendocrine correlates of chronic fatigue syndrome: A brief ...

by MA Demitrack - 1997 - Cited by 63

Neuroendocrine Correlates of CFS 73 Of background interest to this point is a very .... serotonin dysregulation remains a reasonable candidate abnormality ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022395696000593

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Further studies in the developmental hyperserotonemia model (DHS ...
by IM McNamara - 2008 - Cited by 5

Prior research has reliably found high blood (hyperserotonemia) – but low brain – serotonin levels in autistic individuals. At early stages of development, ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006899307025838

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

have abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood.

Exactly why the levels are high is not ...... have been orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, fatigue ...

www.netce.com/1116/Catalog_MA08.pdf?PHPSESSID...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Neuroimmune Pharmacology - Google Books Result

Tsuneya Ikezu, Howard E. Gendelman - 2008 -

Medical - 827 pages

Similar to other lentiviruses, FIV neurotropism was demonstrated by virus ... and to a lesser extent astrocytes; whereas, MuLV, depending on the strain, ...

books.google.com/books?isbn=0387725725...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Feline immunodeficiency virus neurotropism: evidence that ...

by SW Dow - 1992 - Cited by 54

Feline immunodeficiency virus neurotropism: evidence that astrocytes and microglia are the primary target cells. Dow SW, Dreitz MJ, Hoover EA. ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1337399

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Variant-Specific Tropism of Human Herpesvirus 6 in Human Astrocytes

by D Donati - 2005 - Cited by 26

The differential tropism of HHV-6A or HHV-6B in human astrocytes has .... 6 according to site and variant: possible greater neurotropism of variant A.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181567/

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

potentially due to the greater neurotropism of ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1473309903007229

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Objective and Study Design: A subset of patients with CFS-like illness & HHV-6A positivity have been followed carefully for5-22 years. ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1386653206700907

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HHV-6A (GS strain),
HHV-6A (GS strain),
HHV-6A (GS strain),
in both latent form and during acute infection
in both latent form and during acute infection
in both latent form and during acute infection

http://www.hhv-6foundation.org/

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MJH Salonen - 2006

The two variants HHV-6A and HHV-6B appear to have different disease associations

iospress.metapress.com/index/110GTEKYR4ECT4UA.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HHV-6A ... associated with several more severe complications ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_herpesvirus_6

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by A Blauvelt - 2001 - Cited by 9

HHV-6A is the subtype commonly reactivated in AIDS patients (Schirmer et al ...

www.nature.com › Journal home › Archive › Skin Microbial Ecology

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Cellular and molecular studies: i) The inflammation induced apoptosis and ... astrocytes and microglia during neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration; ...

www.upei.ca/research/researcherlist

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Neuronal damage accompanies perinatal white-matter damage

by A Leviton - 2007 - Cited by 17

... in this study suggests that inflammation-induced apoptosis is an on-going process ... inflammatory mediators impair astrocytes' ability to modulate ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0166223607001816

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Temple University School of Medicine Department of Pathology and ...

... abuse that lead to an overall increase in oxidative stress and NF- κB signaling resulting in impairment of astrocytes and endothelial cell function. ...

www.temple.edu/medicine/faculty/p/persidsky.asp?pms...

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post-exertional malaise in chronic fatigue syndrome

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18441039

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The conversion of serotonin to melatonin is a ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC113771/

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brainstem astrocytes .....

brainstem and spinal cord astrocytes ...

doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1471-4159.1990.tb01923.x

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Blood-brain barrier disruption ... injures astrocytes and may promote BBB disruption ... brain stem, ... and spinal cord. ...

msj.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/9/6/540.pdf

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Brainstem perfusion is impaired in chronic fatigue syndrome.

DC Costa - 1995

We then tested whether perfusion to the brainstem in ME/CFS patients differs from that in normals, patients with major depression, and others with epilepsy. ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8542261

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Recent studies have revealed a positive correlation between astrocyte apoptosis and rapid disease progression in persons with neurodegenerative diseases. ...

mcb.asm.org/cgi/content/full/23/13/4649?...10...

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Neurodegeneration Induced by PVC-211 Murine Leukemia Virus Is ...

by X Li - 2009

the pathological phenotype of PVC-211 MuLV-induced disease as spongiform neurodegeneration occurring in the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord (19) ...

jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/83/10/4912.pdf

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Regulation of serotonin transporter gene expression in human glial ...

by N KUBOTA - 2001 - Cited by 18

The expression of serotonin transporter mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in normal human astrocytes, ...

cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=949595

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Specific Modulation of Astrocyte Inflammation by Inhibition of ...

by J Falsig - 2004 - Cited by 19

Mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), a family of MAPK kinase kinases, may therefore be involved in astrocyte inflammation. In this study, we explored the effect of ...

www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/abstract/173/4/2762

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Neutrophil-specific chemokines are produced by astrocytic cells ...

by W LU - 2005 - Cited by 6

Background: Neutrophils have a central role in the inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system (CNS). ELR chemokines direct neutrophil migration, ...

cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16688346

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Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes

Serotonin Dysregulation by XMRV-infected Astrocytes

The expression of serotonin transporter mRNA has been detected in normal human astrocytes. Serotonin regulation is a task being carried out by astrocytes in the brainstem and spinal cord, which is the place in the CNS, where inflammation and neurodegeneration is taking place in CFS/ME, on a chronically recurrent basis.

In CFS/ME abnormally high levels of serotonin have been found in the blood, which is a phenomenon also called hyperserotonemia. So high levels of XMRV-infected astrocytes will cause chronically returning brainstem and spinal cord inflammation leading to high levels of astrocytes undergoing apoptosis, which eventually will cause a situation where normal serotonin regulation will have become outright serotonin dys-regulation.

Unfortunately, this hyperserotonemia may under circumstances lead to serotonin syndrome, which is a medical complicaton with extremely high serotonin levels, characterized as being life-threatening and potentially having a fatal outcome.

However, hyperserotonemia - because of conversion of serotonin to melatonin - also causes hypermelatonemia, which are abnormally high levels of melatonin in the blood, which may cause extreme numbness or fatigue, which is a waxing and waning pattern found in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, also known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. However, the really debilitating lethargy (fatigue) and malaise (pain) in CFS/ME may more often than not, be the result from PRCA-related anemia caused by XMRV-induced bone marrow cell suppression, resulting in hemolytic anemia, which is a serious underdiagnosed complication in CFS/ME.

XMRV in the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, DG-75

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Constitutive production of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV in the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, DG-75, in the immunodeficiency disease, known as chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).

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Literature

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Virology. 1998 Oct 10;250(1):135-9.

Constitutive production of a murine retrovirus in the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, DG-75.

Raisch KP, Kushnaryov VM, Grossberg SE, Cashdollar LW.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 53226, USA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9770427

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PLoS Pathog. 2006 Mar;2(3):e25. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

Identification of a novel Gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant.

Urisman A, Molinaro RJ, Fischer N, Plummer SJ, Casey G, Klein EA, Malathi K, Magi-Galluzzi C, Tubbs RR, Ganem D, Silverman RH, DeRisi JL.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16609730

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Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):585-9. Epub 2009 Oct 8.

Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Das Gupta J, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, Dean M, Silverman RH, Mikovits JA.

Whittemore Peterson Institute, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Comment in:

* Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):530-1.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19815723

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by JL Sullivan - 1982 - Cited by 4

In vitro responses to a B-lymphoblastoid cell line in immunodeficiency diseases. Sullivan JL, Ochs HD, Wedgwood RJ.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6461669

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chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

jcp.bmjjournals.com › Table of Contents

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The human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75

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General Conclusion

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The human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75 may be the place to go to when you want to find both XMRV and HHV-6A
The human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75 may be the place to go to when you want to find both XMRV and HHV-6A
The human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75 may be the place to go to when you want to find both XMRV and HHV-6A

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Literature

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Virology. 2003 Mar 30;308(1):83-91.

Molecular cloning, complete sequence, and biological characterization of a xenotropic murine leukemia virus constitutively released from the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75.

Raisch KP, Pizzato M, Sun HY, Takeuchi Y, Cashdollar LW, Grossberg SE.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12706092

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by S Daefler - 1989

Susceptibility to HIV-1 infection of a human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, DG75, transfected with subgenomic DNA fragments of EBV.

http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102179227.html

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XMRV immunopathogenesis: how good interferon turns bad.

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General Conclusion

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XMRV immunopathogenesis: how good interferon turns bad.
XMRV immunopathogenesis: how good interferon turns bad.
XMRV immunopathogenesis: how good interferon turns bad.

Interferon production by a human lymphoblastoid cell line (DG-75)
Interferon production by a human lymphoblastoid cell line (DG-75)
Interferon production by a human lymphoblastoid cell line (DG-75)

The DG-75 cells present a source of large quantities of interferon
The DG-75 cells present a source of large quantities of interferon
The DG-75 cells present a source of large quantities of interferon

The protective role of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in CFS/ME
The protective role of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in CFS/ME
The protective role of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in CFS/ME

XMRV infection markedly affects the expression of IFN genes
XMRV infection markedly affects the expression of IFN genes
XMRV infection markedly affects the expression of IFN genes

XMRV infection diminishes production of interferon-gamma
XMRV infection diminishes production of interferon-gamma
XMRV infection diminishes production of interferon-gamma

XMRV induces the production of type I interferon
XMRV induces the production of type I interferon
XMRV induces the production of type I interferon

Effect of Type-I Interferon on Retroviruses
Effect of Type-I Interferon on Retroviruses
Effect of Type-I Interferon on Retroviruses

Enhanced type I interferon signalling promotes inflammation
Enhanced type I interferon signalling promotes inflammation
Enhanced type I interferon signalling promotes inflammation

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Literature

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HIV-1 immunopathogenesis: how good interferon turns bad.

Clin Immunol. 2007 May;123(2):121-8. Epub 2006 Nov 16.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17112786

=> The hallmark of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the progressive loss of CD4+ T cells that results from infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1).

=> the protective role of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in HIV/AIDS.

=> HIV-1 induces the production of type I interferon

=> the selective death of HIV-exposed CD4+ T cells.

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Interferon production by a human lymphoblastoid cell line (DG-75) free of the Epstein-Barr genome.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1981 Aug;20(2):151-4.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6169305

=> The DG-75 cells present a new source of large quantities of interferon which may be safer for human use than the Namalva interferon.

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interferon-treated MuLV producer cells

jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/27/2/449.pdf

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infection of mice with ... MuLV markedly affected the expression of IFN genes

www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=239822

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Eight weeks after MuLV infection, both had similar immunological profiles with decreased lymphocyte proliferation, diminished production of interferon-gamma ...

ajp.amjpathol.org/cgi/content/abstract/146/3/635

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Effect of Type-I Interferon on Retroviruses

by E Gómez-Lucía - 2009

Keywords: Type-I interferons; retrovirus; HIV-1; HTLV-I; FeLV; MuLV

www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/1/3/545

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Enhanced type I interferon signalling promotes Th1-biased inflammation in cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/path.1721

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Mozart may have died of XMRV-induced myocarditis

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

died at the age of 35 years
died at the age of 35 years
died at the age of 35 years

27 January 1756 - 5 December 1791
27 January 1756 - 5 December 1791
27 January 1756 - 5 December 1791

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
coincident rheumatic fever and XMRV infection
coincident rheumatic fever and XMRV infection
coincident rheumatic fever and XMRV infection

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
rheumatic fever due to myocarditis
rheumatic fever due to myocarditis
rheumatic fever due to myocarditis

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
rheumatic fever due to
rheumatic fever due to
rheumatic fever due to
XMRV-induced myocarditis
XMRV-induced myocarditis
XMRV-induced myocarditis

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a cell-mediated injury to
a cell-mediated injury to
a cell-mediated injury to
the myocytes in XMRV-positive patients
the myocytes in XMRV-positive patients
the myocytes in XMRV-positive patients

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart may have died of
rheumatic fever due to
rheumatic fever due to
rheumatic fever due to
XMRV-associated fatal myocarditis due to
XMRV-associated fatal myocarditis due to
XMRV-associated fatal myocarditis due to
chronically reactivated coinfection with
chronically reactivated coinfection with
chronically reactivated coinfection with
erythrovirus (parvovirus B19)
erythrovirus (parvovirus B19)
erythrovirus (parvovirus B19)
and
human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A)
human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A)
human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A)
in the absence of an antiviral immune response
in the absence of an antiviral immune response
in the absence of an antiviral immune response

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Parvovirus B19-related anemia due to XMRV infection
Parvovirus B19-related anemia due to XMRV infection
Parvovirus B19-related anemia due to XMRV infection

aplastic anemia due to XMRV infection
aplastic anemia due to XMRV infection
aplastic anemia due to XMRV infection

chronically reactivated infection by
chronically reactivated infection by
chronically reactivated infection by
Variant A of Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)
Variant A of Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)
Variant A of Human Herpesvirus Six (HHV-6A)
Causes
Destruction of
Destruction of
Destruction of
Lymphoid Tissues of XMRV Infected Individuals.
Lymphoid Tissues of XMRV Infected Individuals.
Lymphoid Tissues of XMRV Infected Individuals.

the combined effects of both
the combined effects of both
the combined effects of both
XMRV and HHV-6A infection
XMRV and HHV-6A infection
XMRV and HHV-6A infection
in destroying cells
in destroying cells
in destroying cells

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Lymphoid Tissues
Lymphoid Tissues
Lymphoid Tissues

myocarditis
myocarditis
myocarditis

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myocarditis
myocarditis
myocarditis
due to failure to eliminate the virus from
due to failure to eliminate the virus from
due to failure to eliminate the virus from
heart muscle and lymphoid tissues
heart muscle and lymphoid tissues
heart muscle and lymphoid tissues
during the course of chronically reactivated infection
during the course of chronically reactivated infection
during the course of chronically reactivated infection
in immunosuppressive diseases
in immunosuppressive diseases
in immunosuppressive diseases

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chronically reactivated infection
chronically reactivated infection
chronically reactivated infection

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
is characterized by
lymphocytic myocarditis,
lymphocytic myocarditis,
lymphocytic myocarditis,
fibrosis,
fibrosis,
fibrosis,
myocyte hypertrophy
myocyte hypertrophy
myocyte hypertrophy

Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
is characterized by
an inflammatory reaction
which may eventually lead to
heart enlargement,
heart enlargement,
heart enlargement,
arrythmia,
arrythmia,
arrythmia,
and
death.
death.
death.

XMRV infection
XMRV infection
XMRV infection
may cause
chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy

XMRV-induced Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy
XMRV-induced Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy
XMRV-induced Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy

XMRV-induced Ventricular Tachycardia
XMRV-induced Ventricular Tachycardia
XMRV-induced Ventricular Tachycardia

XMRV infection
XMRV infection
XMRV infection
may cause
Ventricular Tachycardia
Ventricular Tachycardia
Ventricular Tachycardia

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Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
may be
the worse result of this disease
the worse result of this disease
the worse result of this disease
and
its main cause of mortality.
its main cause of mortality.
its main cause of mortality.

Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathy
has been associated with
sudden death
and
early death

Ventricular Tachycardia
has been associated with
sudden death
and
early death

ventricular arrhythmias
ventricular arrhythmias
ventricular arrhythmias

Cardiac disease
in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies,
including
heart failure,
arrhythmias,
cardiac arrest,
myocardial infarction

Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular tachycardia
(a dangerous abnormal heart rhythm)
(a dangerous abnormal heart rhythm)
(a dangerous abnormal heart rhythm)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
and
Ventricular Tachycardia

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A subgroup of
patients with autism spectrum disorders,
perhaps as many as 40%,
demonstrate
high levels of serotonin in the blood

The 40% autism subgroup
The 40% autism subgroup
The 40% autism subgroup
demonstrates
high levels of serotonin in the blood

high levels of serotonin
high levels of serotonin
high levels of serotonin
will stimulate
will stimulate
will stimulate
ROS-mediated myocyte hypertrophy
ROS-mediated myocyte hypertrophy
ROS-mediated myocyte hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Left ventricular hypertrophy
is
a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Ventricular tachycardia during exercise testing
as a predictor of sudden death
in patients with
chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy
and
ventricular arrhythmias.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The 40% autism subgroup
The 40% autism subgroup
The 40% autism subgroup
demonstrates
XMRV infection
XMRV infection
XMRV infection

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

syncope due to ventricular tachycardia
syncope due to ventricular tachycardia
syncope due to ventricular tachycardia

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
met the recognized criteria for a diagnosis of
met the recognized criteria for a diagnosis of
met the recognized criteria for a diagnosis of
Asperger's Syndrome
Asperger's Syndrome
Asperger's Syndrome

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Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mozart may have died of a number of illnesses. [...]

He suffered from rheumatic pain, headaches, [...]

lethargy.

http://library.thinkquest.org/C006599/english/am.html

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Born: January 27, 1756

Salzburg, Austria

Died: December 5, 1791

Vienna, Austria

www.essentialsofmusic.com/composer/mozart.html

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Chicago Journals - Clinical Infectious Diseases

Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with ... that the institute has identified XMRV in 40% of children with autism. ...

www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/651188

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Just because you can't find it doesn't mean it isn't there.

New British Failure to find XMRV in CFS/ME

Published: 15 February 2010

http://www.retrovirology.com/content/7/1/10

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First impression

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The new British study says that XMRV infection may occur in the general population, sort of implying that once you've got CFS/ME, you have an Overall Guaranteed Lifelong Protection against all the diseases in the world you can think of. So anyone can get XMRV, except those with CFS/ME. That's not my conclusion, but that is sort of what you can read there.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Conclusion

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75 is the place to go to, when you want to find infection with XMRV : Constitutive production of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line, DG-75, in the immunodeficiency disease, known as chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).

The human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75 is not the place where they went to, when they wanted to find infection with XMRV in people with CFS/ME.

If you don't look where you should find it, then consequently you won't find it.

P.S.

[1] Just because you can't find it in the blood doesn't mean it isn't there.

[2] Just Because You Can't See The Sun Doesn't Mean It's Not Shining

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General Conclusion

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XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME

HIV-1 + HHV-6A = AIDS

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

XMRV infection may occur in the general population

http://www.retrovirology.com/content/7/1/10

http://www.prohealth.com/library/showarticle.cfm?libid=15157&utm_source=...

http://7thspace.com/headlines/335215/absence_of_xenotropic_murine_leukae...

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Only the WPI researchers know where and how to go and find XMRV

And in fact, this is proof once more that up till now only the WPI researchers know where and how to go and find XMRV infection in CFS/ME.

JHKV infection may involve chronic fatigue syndrome

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XMRV + HHV-6A = CFS/ME = JHKV infection ?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General Conclusion

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

JHKV infection
JHKV infection
JHKV infection

a xenotropic murine leukemia virus
a xenotropic murine leukemia virus
a xenotropic murine leukemia virus
constitutively released from
the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75.
the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75.
the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75.

chronic fatigue syndrome
chronic fatigue syndrome
chronic fatigue syndrome

Sidney E. Grossberg, MD
Sidney E. Grossberg, MD
Sidney E. Grossberg, MD

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Literature

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JHKV infection

Sidney E. Grossberg, MD
Professor
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
Medical College of Wisconsin

"The possible etiological role of the JHK virus in diseases that may involve B-lymphocytes, such as leukemia, lymphoma, chronic fatigue syndrome or immuno-dysfunctional states, remains to be determined."

http://www.mcw.edu/microbiology/SidneyGrossberg.htm

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Molecular cloning, complete sequence, and biological characterization of a xenotropic murine leukemia virus constitutively released from the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line DG-75.

Raisch KP, Pizzato M, Sun HY, Takeuchi Y, Cashdollar LW, Grossberg SE.

Virology. 2003 Mar 30;308(1):83-91.

http://www.mcw.edu/microbiology/SidneyGrossberg.htm

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Sidney E. Grossberg, MD
Professor
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
Medical College of Wisconsin

Research Focus: Studies of Interferons and Retroviruses

http://www.mcw.edu/microbiology/SidneyGrossberg.htm

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XMRV infection = JHKV infection ?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The JHK virus exhibits a distinctive morphogenesis,

most nearly resembling C-type retroviruses.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9201810

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C-type retroviruses, such as murine leukemia virus

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042682203004021

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So it looks like Grossberg discovered XMRV first.

So it looks like Grossberg discovered XMRV first.

http://forums.aboutmecfs.org/showthread.php?1207-WPI-repoting-XMRV-is-no...

Grossberg's JHK retrovirus found imbedded in HHV-6A

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

XMRV may be the same as Grossberg's JHK retrovirus found imbedded in HHV-6A

http://forums.aboutmecfs.org/showthread.php?1207-WPI-repoting-XMRV-is-no...

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The basic thing you should know is that nearly all ME/CFIDS patients have a virus called HHV-6A and inside that is a retrovirus that one researcher has ...

www.ncf-net.org/forum/ncftruths.html

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retrovirus in B cells

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jcb.240440706

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B Lymphocytes. B cells and T cells are the main types of lymphocytes. B cells work chiefly by secreting substances called antibodies into the body's fluids. ...

www.enotalone.com/article/10884.html

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Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

Bernard J. Poiesz,* Francis W. Ruscetti,* Adi F. Gazdar,† Paul A. Bunn,† John D. Minna,† and Robert C. Gallo*‡

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 December; 77(12): 7415–7419.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC390050/

Retrovirus particles with type C morphology were found in two T-cell lymphoblastoid cell lines, HUT 102 and CTCL-3, and in fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from a patient with a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). The cell lines continuously produce these viruses, which are collectively referred to as HTLV, strain CR(HTLVCR).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CFS/ME may be a disease involving B-lymphocytes

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General Conclusion

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CFS/ME may be a disease involving B-lymphocytes
CFS/ME may be a disease involving B-lymphocytes
CFS/ME may be a disease involving B-lymphocytes

B cells
B cells
B cells
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
may be the place to go to
may be the place to go to
may be the place to go to
for detection of XMRV infection
for detection of XMRV infection
for detection of XMRV infection

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Conclusion

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

chronic fatigue syndrome
chronic fatigue syndrome
chronic fatigue syndrome
may involve B-lymphocytes
may involve B-lymphocytes
may involve B-lymphocytes

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

diseases that may involve B-lymphocytes,
diseases that may involve B-lymphocytes,
diseases that may involve B-lymphocytes,
such as leukemia, lymphoma, chronic fatigue syndrome or immuno-dysfunctional states
such as leukemia, lymphoma, chronic fatigue syndrome or immuno-dysfunctional states
such as leukemia, lymphoma, chronic fatigue syndrome or immuno-dysfunctional states

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

bone marrow is the primary site of early events
bone marrow is the primary site of early events
bone marrow is the primary site of early events
in the differentiation of postnatal B lymphocytes
in the differentiation of postnatal B lymphocytes
in the differentiation of postnatal B lymphocytes

B cells subsequently become widely dispersed
B cells subsequently become widely dispersed
B cells subsequently become widely dispersed
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B cells
B cells
B cells
B cells
B cells
B cells
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues
in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

defects in the early and late stages of differentiation of B lymphocytes
defects in the early and late stages of differentiation of B lymphocytes
defects in the early and late stages of differentiation of B lymphocytes
contribute to
immunologic dysfunction in
immunologic dysfunction in
immunologic dysfunction in
the naturally occurring immunodeficiency diseases.
the naturally occurring immunodeficiency diseases.
the naturally occurring immunodeficiency diseases.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sidney E. Grossberg, MD : "... diseases that may involve B-lymphocytes, such as leukemia, lymphoma, chronic fatigue syndrome or immuno-dysfunctional states, ..."

http://www.mcw.edu/microbiology/SidneyGrossberg.htm

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B-lymphocyte function in immunodeficiency disease

A. H. Filipovich and J. H. Kersey

Division of Pediatric Immunology, Department of Pediatrics and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, U.S.A.

Immunology Today

Volume 4, Issue 2, February 1983, Pages 50-55

Available online 20 July 2004.

Abstract

While B lymphocytes were originally named after their developmental site in the bursa of, Fabricius of chickens, it is currently accepted that bone marrow is the primary site of early events in the differentiation of postnatal B lymphocytes in humans and other mammals. B cells subsequently become widely dispersed in the circulation and peripheral lymphoid tissues. This review summarizes defects in the early and late stages of differentiation of B lymphocytes which contribute to immunologic dysfunction in the naturally occurring immunodeficiency diseases.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VHW-4CWYP4H-5...

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Immature pre-B cells in bone marrow : the primary target of XMRV

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Immature pre-B cells in bone marrow : the primary target of XMRV infection
Immature pre-B cells in bone marrow : the primary target of XMRV infection
Immature pre-B cells in bone marrow : the primary target of XMRV infection
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

XMRV infection in CD5+ B cells
XMRV infection in CD5+ B cells
XMRV infection in CD5+ B cells

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Something to keep in mind

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

immature pre-B cells in bone marrow
immature pre-B cells in bone marrow
immature pre-B cells in bone marrow

may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General Conclusion

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CFS - XMRV - B cells (astrocytes) an important reservoir for HHV-6A
CFS - XMRV - B cells (astrocytes) an important reservoir for HHV-6A
CFS - XMRV - B cells (astrocytes) an important reservoir for HHV-6A

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Coinfection with XMRV and HHV-6A in CD5+ B cells in CFS/ME.
Coinfection with XMRV and HHV-6A in CD5+ B cells in CFS/ME.
Coinfection with XMRV and HHV-6A in CD5+ B cells in CFS/ME.

Coinfection with HIV-1 and HHV-6A in CD4+ T cells in AIDS.
Coinfection with HIV-1 and HHV-6A in CD4+ T cells in AIDS.
Coinfection with HIV-1 and HHV-6A in CD4+ T cells in AIDS.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CFS/ME as a coinfection with XMRV and HHV-6A in CD5+ B cells.
CFS/ME as a coinfection with XMRV and HHV-6A in CD5+ B cells.
CFS/ME as a coinfection with XMRV and HHV-6A in CD5+ B cells.

AIDS as a coinfection with HIV-1 and HHV-6A in CD4+ T cells.
AIDS as a coinfection with HIV-1 and HHV-6A in CD4+ T cells.
AIDS as a coinfection with HIV-1 and HHV-6A in CD4+ T cells.

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as an HHV-6A Syndrome
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as an HHV-6A Syndrome
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as an HHV-6A Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as a B cell syndrome
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as a B cell syndrome
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as a B cell syndrome

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The involvement of CD5+ B-cells in CFS/ME
The involvement of CD5+ B-cells in CFS/ME
The involvement of CD5+ B-cells in CFS/ME

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

XMRV infection in CD5+ B cells
XMRV infection in CD5+ B cells
XMRV infection in CD5+ B cells

HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells
HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells
HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells

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AIDS as an HHV-6A Syndrome
AIDS as an HHV-6A Syndrome
AIDS as an HHV-6A Syndrome

AIDS as a T cell syndrome
AIDS as a T cell syndrome
AIDS as a T cell syndrome

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HHV-6A destroys the B-cells
HHV-6A destroys the B-cells
HHV-6A destroys the B-cells

HHV-6A infects the B-cells in CFS/ME
HHV-6A infects the B-cells in CFS/ME
HHV-6A infects the B-cells in CFS/ME

HHV-6A infects the T-cells in AIDS
HHV-6A infects the T-cells in AIDS
HHV-6A infects the T-cells in AIDS

HHV-6A infects the B cells (astrocytes) in CFS/ME
HHV-6A infects the B cells (astrocytes) in CFS/ME
HHV-6A infects the B cells (astrocytes) in CFS/ME

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HHV-6A and infected B-cells
HHV-6A and infected B-cells
HHV-6A and infected B-cells

HHV-6A infected cells
HHV-6A infected cells
HHV-6A infected cells

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Astrocytes as an important reservoir for HHV-6A in CFS/ME
Astrocytes as an important reservoir for HHV-6A in CFS/ME
Astrocytes as an important reservoir for HHV-6A in CFS/ME

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B cells (astrocytes) give rise to other types of cells.
B cells (astrocytes) give rise to other types of cells.
B cells (astrocytes) give rise to other types of cells.

HHV-6A in infected B- but not T-cells
HHV-6A in infected B- but not T-cells
HHV-6A in infected B- but not T-cells

HHV-6A in infected B-cells
HHV-6A in infected B-cells
HHV-6A in infected B-cells

B cell astrocyte
B cell astrocyte
B cell astrocyte

B cells (astrocytes)
B cells (astrocytes)
B cells (astrocytes)

astrocytes and B cells
astrocytes and B cells
astrocytes and B cells

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

mature astrocytes ... incapable of forming multipotent clones
mature astrocytes ... incapable of forming multipotent clones
mature astrocytes ... incapable of forming multipotent clones

whereas the B cell astrocyte ...
whereas the B cell astrocyte ...
whereas the B cell astrocyte ...

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B cells (astrocytes) give rise to other types of cells.
B cells (astrocytes) give rise to other types of cells.
B cells (astrocytes) give rise to other types of cells.

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interacting with two distinct target cells, B cells and astrocytes
interacting with two distinct target cells, B cells and astrocytes
interacting with two distinct target cells, B cells and astrocytes

the neurotropic HHV-6A strain
the neurotropic HHV-6A strain
the neurotropic HHV-6A strain

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Astrocytes may be an important reservoir for HHV-6A
Astrocytes may be an important reservoir for HHV-6A
Astrocytes may be an important reservoir for HHV-6A

B cells (astrocytes) may be an important reservoir for HHV-6A
B cells (astrocytes) may be an important reservoir for HHV-6A
B cells (astrocytes) may be an important reservoir for HHV-6A

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CD5+ B cells are lymphocytes
CD5+ B cells are lymphocytes
CD5+ B cells are lymphocytes

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

XMRV infection might be detected more easily in pre-B-cells
XMRV infection might be detected more easily in pre-B-cells
XMRV infection might be detected more easily in pre-B-cells

In CFS/ME pre-B cells in bone marrow may be targeted by XMRV
In CFS/ME pre-B cells in bone marrow may be targeted by XMRV
In CFS/ME pre-B cells in bone marrow may be targeted by XMRV

pre-B cells in bone marrow
pre-B cells in bone marrow
pre-B cells in bone marrow

XMRV targeted paths
XMRV targeted paths
XMRV targeted paths

XMRV-transformed pre-B cells
XMRV-transformed pre-B cells
XMRV-transformed pre-B cells

immature pre-B cells containing XMRV targets
immature pre-B cells containing XMRV targets
immature pre-B cells containing XMRV targets

immature astrocytes may be targeted by XMRV
immature astrocytes may be targeted by XMRV
immature astrocytes may be targeted by XMRV

lymphocytes may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
lymphocytes may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
lymphocytes may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME

immature pre-B cells in bone marrow
immature pre-B cells in bone marrow
immature pre-B cells in bone marrow
immature pre-B cells in bone marrow
immature pre-B cells in bone marrow
immature pre-B cells in bone marrow
may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME
may be the primary target of XMRV-induced CFS/ME

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HHV-6a destroys the B-cells of the immune system at a rapid rate. This has been found in research carried out by Robert Gallo MD of the NIH in the USA and ...

ww.cfs-ireland.org/hhv6a.htm

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HHV-6A and B infected cells

www.abionline.com/products/13-219-001

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B Cells Malignantly Transformed by Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

by C Rodriguez-Alfageme - 1998

This line was produced by exposing B cells from an EBV-seropositive donor ...

K. Falchuck, F. Wong-Stall and R. Gallo, Pathogenesis of B cell lymphoma in a ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042682298994454

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B Cells and the road to cancer ...

groups.google.com/group/alt.support.../743b3d2c4bf9e6de?...

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B cells, the immune cells that produce antibodies, start their development in the bone marrow and complete it in peripheral blood and tissues.

[...]

“By identifying exactly where B cells are in their stage of development, you can better understand and target specific B cell diseases” said Dr Tangye.

http://insciences.org/article.php?article_id=7673

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by S Thulke - 2006 - Cited by 3

Our own studies showed that HHV-6A as well as HHV-6B are able to infect cord blood (CB) ...

ukpmc.ac.uk › Journal List › Virol J › v.3; 2006

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome as a kind of variable HHV-6A Syndrome

http://hhv6.blogspot.com/2005/07/question-for-dr-joseph-brewer.html

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Cord blood B cells

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2119917

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cord Blood in Pregnancies

content.karger.com/produktedb/produkte.asp?typ=fulltext&file...

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by RJ Warrington - 1995

Normal human cord blood B cells can produce high affinity IgG antibodies ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7569772

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This allowed us to compare the HHV-6A infected cells with cells ... Ablashi DV ... Gallo RC Nature ...

www.biomedcentral.com/content/download/.../1743-422x-4-106.xml

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P Lusso - 2007 - Cited by 12

Human herpesvirus 6A accelerates AIDS progression in macaques — PNAS

by P Lusso - 2007 - Cited by 12

To investigate the effects of HHV-6A on AIDS progression, we experimentally coinfected pig-tailed macaques, whose T cells are highly susceptible to HHV-6A ...

www.pnas.org/content/104/12/5067.full

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HHV-6A in infected B- but not T-cells

doi.wiley.com/.../(SICI)1096-9071(199807)55:3%3C219::AID-JMV7%3E3.0.CO;...

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a pure B cell syndrome

www.geometry.net/health_conditions/immune_deficiencies.php

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astrocytes and B cells

doi.wiley.com/.../(SICI)1521-4141(199909)29:09%3C2705::AID-IMMU2705%3E3.0.CO%3B2-1

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Only type B cells (identified ultrastructurally as astrocytes) ...

B cells (astrocytes) give rise to other types of cells.

www.springerlink.com/index/Q6KK4ALMBVL9P4WN.pdf

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

... brain lesions with B cell ...

www.jem.org/cgi/content/abstract/201/2/195?ck=nck

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Identification of a multipotent astrocytic stem cell in the ...

by ED Laywell - 2000 - Cited by 433

Radial glia differentiate into mature astrocytes that are incapable of forming multipotent clones in vitro, whereas the B cell astrocyte is maintained in a ...

ukpmc.ac.uk › ... › Proc Natl Acad Sci USA › v.97(25); Dec 5, 2000

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by EN Benveniste - 1989

interacting with two distinct target cells, B cells and astrocytes, ...

intimm.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/1/3/219.pdf

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lymphocytes and primary human astrocytes derived from brain biopsy material in vitro with the more neurotropic HHV-6A strain.

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.20333

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Variant-specific tropism of human herpesvirus 6 in human astrocytes.

by D Donati - 2005

Astrocytes may be an important reservoir for this virus in which differential tropism of HHV-6A and HHV-6B may be associated with different disease outcomes ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16014907

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But it may take years for the virus to damage enough T cells for that person to get sick and develop AIDS.

kidshealth.org › Kids › Kids' Health Problems

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CD5+ B cells are lymphocytes

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006322398003072

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HIV-specific CD4+ T cells

www.bloodjournal.org/cgi/content/full/108/5/1643

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by MA Borrello - 2001

CD5+ B cell lymphomas recombinant retrovirus developed as a derivative of Mo-MuLV ...

www.informaworld.com/index/907272642.pdf

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by M Dono - 2004 - Cited by 39

The involvement of CD5+ B-cells in human disease ...

the leukemic CD5+ B-cell ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1357272504002419

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Today, we know that B lymphocytes derive throughout life in adult human and murine bone marrow from ..... positive Abl-MuLV-transformed pre-B cell ..... normal Ly-1 (CD5+) B cells.

www.lymphozyten.de/docs/bradl_review_2005.pdf

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proteins can be detected in all A-MuLV pre-B-cell lymphomas
proteins can be detected in all A-MuLV pre-B-cell lymphomas
proteins can be detected in all A-MuLV pre-B-cell lymphomas

by E Pillemer - 1984 - Cited by 41

The 6C3 proteins can be detected in all A-MuLV pre-B-cell lymphomas and some nonviral B lymphomas but are not detected on any other tumor or normal cell, ...

www.pnas.org/content/81/14/4434.abstract

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by SP Klinken - 1987 - Cited by 5

This acceleration of disease could be attributed to a marked increase in pre-B cells as targets for transformation by A-MuLV in the bone marrows but not the ...

www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/abstract/139/9/3091

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By comparison, infection of mice with A-MuLV results primarily in the development ...

of pre-B cells in bone marrow was greatly increased by this treatment. ...

www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/abstract/139/9/3091

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To identify HIV-1 targeted and alternative paths, we first determined the ...

www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/S3/S30

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... first ... pro-B cells, then ... pre-B cells and immature B cells... In MS lesions, ... astrocytes, ...

www.medscape.com/viewarticle/582325_3

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A-MuLV-transformed pre-B cells

www.patentstorm.us/patents/7045292/description.html

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by SK Cho - 1999 - Cited by 83

Although the day of infection varied, in each experiment a significant population of CD45R+ CD24+ IgM− immature pre-B cells containing known A-MuLV targets ...

ukpmc.ac.uk › ... › Proc Natl Acad Sci USA › v.96(17); Aug 17, 1999

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by S Kullberg

MuLV reverse transcriptase ... There is morphological evidence that immature astrocytes are responsible for the ...

diss.kib.ki.se/2002/91-7349-271-x/thesis.pdf

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lymphocytes may be the primary target of HIV-induced cytopathicity and that CD8 T ce!l apoptosis occurs by a secondary mechanism. Our results ...

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jcb.240590707

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immature pre-B cells in the blood

www.neurology.org/cgi/content/full/71/17/1350

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pre-B cells in bone marrow

www.nature.com/leu/journal/v15/n5/abs/2402079a.html

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Ritonavir (Norvir®) against HHV-6A infection

Ritonavir (Norvir®) against HHV-6A infection

Largely hidden rates of coinfection with XMRV and HHV-6A as extremely high as 100 % should be expected in all CFS/ME patients. Human Herpes Virus 6, variant A (HHV-6A) might be a herpesvirus with hitherto unestablished retroviral features.

Ritonavir (Norvir®) is an anti-retroviral drug acting as a protease inhibitor. On the one hand, Ritonavir (Norvir®) may have been shown to be unuseful for preventing or treating XMRV infections in humans.

On the other hand, Ritonavir (Norvir®) may not have been proved to be unuseful for preventing or treating HHV-6A infections in CFS/ME patients.

More research may be necessary in order to establish the effectiveness of Ritonavir (Norvir®) against HHV-6A infection in CFS/ME patients.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus is susceptible to AZT.

Virology. 2010 Feb 5;397(1):1-6. Epub 2009 Dec 2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19959199

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Posit Health News. 1998 Spring;(No 16):21-3.

Quant. PCR and bDNA - the search for the truth continues as high viral load are linked to high beta 2 microglobulin levels.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11365017

Volunteers will be asked to use Norvir after which its effectiveness against HHV-6A infection will be determined.

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METHOD FOR THE TREATMENT OF INFECTION WITH HHV-6 VIRUS AND THE AMELIORATION OF SYMPTOMS RELATED TO VIRUS USING LIPOSOMAL ENCAPSULATION FOR DELIVERY OF REDUCED GLUTATHIONE

Publication Date:
03/12/2009

Filing Date:
09/06/2006

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2009/0068253.html

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HHV-6A, but not HHV-6B, can establish a productive infection of astrocytes

differential tropism of HHV-6A and HHV-6B
may be associated with
different disease outcomes.

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/79/15/9439

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XMRV infection may be found where most reasonably expected

When you think of CFS/ME, you think of chronically recurrent inflammation of the brainstem and the spinal cord, so the brainstem and the spinal cord are the primary places to go to in CFS/ME, because these are clearly the places where inflammation, and coinfection with XMRV and HHV-6A are taking place. So if you are looking for places to go to in CFS/ME, then you should look for immature pre-B cells in bone marrow as far as the spinal cord is concerned, and you should look for immature B cell astrocytes in the brainstem and the spinal cord as far as the central nervous system is concerned. The brainstem and the spinal cord are the places in CFS/ME that should be considered as one of the primary targets of XMRV infection. Which may be the reason why you may not that easily find XMRV infection in blood drawn from the left arm or the right arm, or from similar places, because these are areas where people with CFS/ME in 99,99% of the cases may have no complaints whatsoever, which may be one of the many reasons why the British studies always come up with a failure to find XMRV infection in people with CFS/ME.

If you want to find it, then you have to go to the places where you can reasonably find it, and not to the places where you can be sure not to find it. It is important to know what to look for, where to look for, and how to look for it. And last but not least, it is important to know why to look for it, and finally find it.

If you don't want to do it for those 18 million people suffering from the debilitating consequences of XMRV, then do it for those creative people like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart who without a shadow of a doubt had Asperger Syndrome, XMRV-induced, and who died of myocarditis, also XMRV-induced.

They found FeLV in cats, the counterpart of XMRV in people, as far back as in 1964. How on earth is it possible that people with a similar disease had to wait more than 45 years, before it was finally found. Are cats more important than people ? Are cats more important than Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ?

Is FeLV in cats more important than XMRV in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ?

The difference between AIDS and CFS/ME

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Lymphocytes
are white blood cells
that play a key role in both immunity and allergy.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Lymphocytes are divided into
two types, the T and B lymphocytes :

[1]

CD4+ T cells

CD4+ T lymphocytes

[2]

CD5+ B cells

CD5+ B lymphocytes

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The difference between AIDS and CFS/ME

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection

CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CD5+ B cells during XMRV infection

CD5+ B lymphocytes in XMRV infection

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(CD5+ B lymphocytes) are a hallmark of ...

content.karger.com/produktedb/produkte.asp?typ=fulltext&file...

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Lymphocytes are white blood cells that play a key role in both immunity and allergy. They are divided into two types, the T and B lymphocytes. ...

www.medicinenet.com › ... › allergic cascade index

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pre-B cells to A-MuLV infection ....

B cells ...

CD5+ B cells ...

www.jstor.org/stable/48635

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection

www.pnas.org/content/102/31/10981.abstract

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CD4 T cells in AIDS

gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/102244164.html

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HIV-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV patients with and without coinfection with ...

gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/102280731.html

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James Joyce may have died due to coinfection with XMRV and CMV

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General Conclusion

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Joyce

may have died

due to

an immune deficiency syndrome

caused by

coinfection with

XMRV

and

human cytomegalovirus (CMV, HHV-5).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

James Joyce died half-blind

due to

CMV retinitis

and

CMV gastric ulcer.

James Joyce had Asperger Syndrome.

Asperger Syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder.

40% of those with autism may have XMRV infection.

CMV will do no harm to most people,

unless you have

an immune deficiency syndrome

caused by XMRV,

which is evidence for the fact that

the October 2009 XMRV study by Lombardi et al.

is

100% at the right side of history.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1]

Detection of human cytomegalovirus (CMV, HHV-5) DNA

www.springerlink.com/index/M94X56R56200K070.pdf

[2]

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis causes blindness in immunocompromised individuals.

journals.lww.com › Home › May/June 1988

[3]

James Joyce revolutionized writing and died half-blind in poverty.

www.culturenorthernireland.org/article.aspx?art_id=2698

[4]

immunodeficiency ... the Novel Retrovirus XMRV ...

www.virology.ws/2009/04/17/polio-returns-to-minnesota/

[5]

Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), sometimes shortened to Xenotropic MuLV-related virus

www.wellsphere.com/wellpage/leukemia-virus

[6]

immunocompromised .... mice infected with ... MuLV

doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2249.1997.tb08317.x

[7]

... his cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was exacerbated and, in addition to his preexisting CMV retinitis, a CMV stomach ulcer was diagnosed.

www.jstor.org/stable/30133649

[8]

Asperger's Syndrome ... James Joyce

www.professormichaelfitzgerald.eu/books.html

[9]

Autism: 6/15 (40%) positive for XMRV gag DNA.

www.hhs.gov/advcomcfs/meetings/presentations/peterson_1009_pt4.pptx

[10]

James Joyce (1882-1941) was an Irish writer born in Dublin ... Perforated peptic ulcer: main factors of morbidity and mortality. ...

www.medscape.com › ... › Historical Perspectives in Surgery

[11]

James Joyce (1882 - 1941, aged 58) suffered from a perforated ulcer and ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perforated_ulcer

[12]

James Joyce

He was diagnosed of having a perforated duodenal ulcer. Joyce died after an operation, on January 13, 1941, ...

www.kirjasto.sci.fi/jjoyce.htm

[13]

Detection of an Infectious Retrovirus, XMRV, in Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

by VC Lombardi - 2009

www.sciencemag.org › Science Magazine › 23 October 2009

[14]

infections caused by herpesviruses and retroviruses.

... human cytomegalovirus

jac.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/53/6/975

[15]

Human cytomegalovirus (HHV-5)

(Human herpesvirus 5)

Synonym, Human herpesvirus 5.

Other names,
› Human cytomegalovirus HCMV
› human cytomegalovirus CMV
› human herpesvirus type 5.

www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/10359

[16]

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/02/new-challenge-to-chronic-f...

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James Joyce may have died due to coinfection with XMRV and CMV

James Joyce (1882-1941) was an Irish writer born in Dublin. James Joyce died in Zurich at the age of 58 most probably due to coinfection with XMRV and CMV. James Joyce may have died due to an immune deficiency syndrome caused by coinfection with XMRV and human cytomegalovirus (CMV, HHV-5). James Joyce died half-blind due to CMV retinitis and CMV gastric ulcer. His cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was exacerbated and, in addition to his preexisting CMV retinitis, a CMV stomach ulcer was diagnosed. But at the time no mention was made of CMV, because human CMV strains were isolated no earlier than in 1956, and in 1960 the term "cytomegalovirus" was proposed. James Joyce is considered to have had Asperger Syndrome in a book on autism written by Professor Michael Fitzgerald. Asperger Syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder. 40% of those with autism may show evidence of XMRV infection. CMV will do no harm to most people, unless you have an immune deficiency syndrome, such as one caused by XMRV infection. CMV has now become one of the most common opportunistic pathogens encountered in immunocompromised patients. All of the previous is evidence for the fact that the American study by Lombardi et al., published in Science, on 23 October 2009, under the title "Detection of an Infectious Retrovirus, XMRV, in Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome" is 100% at the right side of history.

Lombardi et al. and Being on the 'Right Side of History

The American XMRV Study and the "Good Men and Women," Always "On The Right Side Of History".

The American XMRV Study and Being on the 'Right Side of History' : All of the previous here above is evidence for the fact that the American study by Lombardi et al., published in Science, on 23 October 2009, under the title "Detection of an Infectious Retrovirus, XMRV, in Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome" is 100% ON the right side of history.

XMRV-positive patients

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

General Conclusion

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CFS/ME patients => XMRV-positive

the 40% autism group => XMRV-positive

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

XMRV-positive CFS patients

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=chronic-fatigue-syndrom...

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

... researchers at the University of Nevada had identified XMRV in about 40% of ASD children studied.

http://scienceblogs.com/erv/2010/01/xmrv_and_chronic_fatigue_syndr_7.php

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How Earthly Paradise Lost Holy Trinity of Art

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Art and Paradise Lost Holy Trinity of Art to Hellish Trinity of XMRV/HHV-6A/CMV

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

XMRV infection will cause CFS/ME, and the British studies on XMRV and CFS/ME should be considered as based on "false beliefs", lingering on because of impractical and irrational 'group psychology'-influenced thinking. Even those who have only still two neuronal cells left in their brains should be able to understand that the causal link between XMRV and CFS/ME is the only thing logically possible, and those who want to deny that, are part of the problem, and not part of the solution. The first two British studies in "search" of the link between CFS/ME and XMRV, not only deny that there is a causal link between XMRV and CFS/ME, they even deny the fact that there is a link at all. Such a conclusion is unworthy of people who consider themselves as scientists, because they should know what MuLV and MIV is doing to mice, and what FeLV and FIV is doing to cats, and consequently, they also should know what XMRV and HIV-1 is doing to humans. MuLV, FeLV and XMRV are part of one family of gammaretroviruses causing neurodegeneration and cancer in mammalians, and MIV, FIV and HIV are one family of lentiretroviruses also causing neurodegeneration and cancer in mammalians. All these retroviruses have lots of things in common, and one of these things what all these retroviruses have in common is that they will cause anemia, which is a shortage of red blood cells, but not the usual kind of anemia, but a very unusual kind of anemia, an almost undetectable kind of anemia, that you will not find in blood drawn in the usual way from the patient, because the anemia is not present in such a way that everyone can see it right away. No, the anemia is far from where the eyes can see it. Far away deep down in the darkest places of the spinal cord, deviously hidden away in little places. A kind of anemia leading to exhaustion (fatigue) and malaise (pain), which is why CFS/ME has received the controversial name Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, because what is at stake here is a syndrome, an immune deficiency syndrome, characterized by the fact that anemia of an unusual kind is taking place in the spinal cord, where the retrovirus XMRV is hunting down immature red blood cells in a waxing and waning way, and XMRV is preferably doing that from its hiding position in the spinal cord, because this is the place where this enemy is hiding itself in white blood cells, called lymphocytes, and not in T-cells, but in B-cells. XMRV is being accompanied there in those lymphocytic pre-B-cells by HHV-6A, because the two of them together are partners in crime. So these pre-B-cells are the places to go to in the blood, and the best way to track down your enemy is to go and look for him when he is in full action causing trouble hunting down innocent immature little red blood cells in the spinal cord and in the brainstem, where these little ones may already have become astrocytes. And astrocytes, being the place sufficiently known to go to, in case you would like to find HHV-6A infection, and not HHV-6B infection. Because HHV-6A is only found in a few diseases, which is AIDS, MS and cancer, but also in CFS/ME where HHV-6A is causing hellish trouble, especially in the brainstem and the spinal cord, and XMRV and HHV-6A is doing that by setting these little pre-B-cells on fire over and over again : these devious XMRV/HHV-6A warriors are relentlessly tracking down these innocent little newborns, and selectively kill them, leaving the patient with lethargy (fatigue) and malaise (pain). But the enemy does not want to kill his host right away. So the enemy is clever enough not to start a dirty war right from the start, because that would mean the end of his own existence, which is why the enemy after uninterrupted battles lasting in most of the cases something like 12 hours, and if you are unlucky more than "just" that, ... but after such an ordeal, the enemy will in most of the cases leave the patient alone for a while in order to give the patient enough time to superficially recover from the damage done, all of this having no other purpose than to prevent the patient from dying right on the spot, because this would leave the enemy empty-handed too, resulting in the enemy having no other choice than just to wait and see who is going to be the next partner in crime to pass by, because although HHV-6A is his first important partner in crime, ... there are lots of others who are perfectly willing to join the fight against these innocent little red blood cells in the spinal cord and the brainstem. One such other candidate is a close cousin, a close relative of HHV-6A, a relative known as CMV, or Cytomegalovirus, alias HHV-5. They look very much the same, but they have differences too, of course. But XMRV/HHV-6A/CMV is a reigning triumvirat in the spinal cord and the brainstem : The Hellish Trinity of the Spinal Cord and the Brainstem. This Hellish Trinity, with XMRV and Cytomegalovirus as the main actors, was responsible for causing all the trouble in Beethoven's life, which left him with complete hearing loss, or deafness, which lead him to depression and alcohol abuse, resulting in alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, all due to a quadruple XMRV/HHV-6A/CMV/HCV coinfection. XMRV and Cytomegalovirus was also responsible for causing all the trouble in James Joyce dying half-blind due to CMV retinitis and CMV peritonitis, and XMRV and Cytomegalovirus was also responsible for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dying due to rheumatic fever and myocarditis. Beethoven, Joyce and Mozart in the end all died because of a chronic triple coinfection with XMRV/HHV-6A/CMV, inducing myocarditis at the very end.

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Literature

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CMV myocarditis

gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/102217234.html

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Development of cytomegalovirus-mediated sensorineural hearing loss

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20083778

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Cytomegalovirus retinitis

www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000665.htm

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CMV blindness and vision loss

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11363423

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At the onset of the disease, the detection of HHV-6A

(but not HHV-6B) DNA in plasma

content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/359/6/593

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HHV-6A shares 67% homology with cytomegalovirus

www.ncf-net.org/forum/ncftruths.html

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CFS is the second example of a human disease in which the prevalence of HHV-6A is increased

http://jcm.asm.org/cgi/reprint/33/6/1660.pdf

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compounds with CMV activity were also active against HHV-6A

aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/49/3/1039

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CMV (HHV-5) is a beta-herpesvirus

http://www.ebi.ac.uk/2can/genomes/viruses/Human_herpesvirus.html

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lymphocytes and primary human astrocytes derived from brain biopsy material in vitro with the more neurotropic HHV-6A strain.

doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.20333

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Astrocytes may be an important reservoir for ... HHV-6A

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16014907

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HHV-6B may be associated with different disease outcomes ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16014907

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human progenitor-derived astrocytes (HPDA)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16014907

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HHV-6A results in a productive lytic infection.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16014907

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In contrast, HHV-6B was associated with a nonproductive infection.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16014907

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Astrocytes may be an important reservoir for this virus in which differential tropism of HHV-6A and HHV-6B may be associated with different disease outcomes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16014907

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Astrocytes may be an important reservoir for ... HHV-6A

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16014907

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... HHV-6A active infection in our patient suggests that the immune response that was mounted against HHV-6B may not have been protective against HHV-6A. ...

content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/359/6/593

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Ablashi's Latest Work Shows HHV-6A Culprit ... the damage in CFS and is found in similar numbers as affects those with AIDS (70%). ...

www.ncf-net.org/forum/ablashi.html

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GAMMARETROVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CANCER

... feline leukemia virus (FeLV) ... A relatively small number of retroviruses such as the lentivirus, HIV-I,

..... a novel gammaretrovirus, named xenotropic MuLV related virus (XMRV), ...

http://www.wipo.int/pctdb/en/wo.jsp?IA=US2006013167&DISPLAY=DESC

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Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is a Determinant of Retrovirus-Induced Spongiform Neurodegeneration

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/23/12617

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... neurodegenerative disease with pathological features strikingly similar to ...

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/23/12617

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... a mouse retrovirus that causes ...

neurodegenerative disease with pathological features strikingly similar to ...

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/23/12617

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... the causal link between ...

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/23/12617

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chronic fatigue syndrome ... CFS can be as debilitating as multiple sclerosis, ...

www.cdc.gov › ... › Awareness Campaign

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Xenotropic MuLV-related retrovirus (XMRV)

www.psychologytoday.com/blog/...medicine/.../xmrv.../comments

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... Murine Leukemia Virus ts1-Induced Thiol

Depletion and Oxidative Stress in Astrocytes.

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/23/12617

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Neurodegeneration Induced by ... Murine Leukemia Virus is ...

the pathological phenotype of PVC-211 MuLV-induced disease as ... neurodegeneration occurring in the cerebellum, brainstem and ...

jvi.asm.org/cgi/reprint/JVI.02343-08v1.pdf

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ts1-induced astrocyte death.

cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15790871

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... protects astrocytes from ts1 MoMuLV-induced oxidative cell death.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12161816

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Beethoven was sick for much of his life.

http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/archive/2006-01/2006-01-03-voa3.cfm

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BEETHOVEN : Loss of Hearing

http://www.beethoven.ws/loss_of_hearing.html

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Professor Michael Fitzgerald - Books

Genesis of Artistic Creativity: Asperger's Syndrome and the Arts. Prof. Michael Fitzgerald.

www.professormichaelfitzgerald.eu/books.html

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The Genesis of Artistic Creativity ...

Asperger's Syndrome and the Arts ...

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-91). ...

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827). ...

http://www.jkp.com/catalogue/book/9781843103349/contents/

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Jacob Teitelbaum, M.D., internist and author of From Fatigued to Fantastic!, researches treatments for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and fibromyalgia.

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