Complementary Medicine

The best of natural and pharmaceutical medicine.

XMRV Controversy Heats Up — Two Important New Studies

As expected, the XMRV virus research has stimulated interest in a host of studies to see if the initial study results can be replicated and to discover treatments for XMRV. Two interesting new studies have been recently reported. Read More

CFS/ME Facts from Florida : 16th February 2007

CFS/ME Facts from Florida : 16th February 2007

"It is known that the MRI is abnormal in the majority of people with ME/CFS due to numerous T2 weighted hyper-intense foci, with evidence of demyelination."

http://www.25megroup.org/Campaigning/Florida%202007%20N.doc

DEMYELINATION IN CFS/ME.

DEMYELINATION IN CFS/ME.

Evidence of demyelination and cerebral oedema has been documented in the CFS/ME literature since 1988. ...

http://www.meactionuk.org.uk/EVIDENCE_OF_DEMYELINATION_AND_CEREBRAL_OEDE...

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Are cats, as a species, involved in XMRV transmission ?

Are cats, as a species, involved in XMRV transmission ?

http://chronicfatigue.about.com/b/2009/10/17/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-xm...

type C retroviruses such as MuLV and FeLV

Retroviruses: Molecular Biology, Genomics and Pathogenesis - Google Books Result
Norbert Bannert - 2010 - Science - 520 pages
(page 55)
... type C retroviruses such as MuLV and FeLV
http://books.google.com/books?id=Vx3HbMRDj1IC&pg=PA55&lpg=PA55&dq=%22

approximately 2 to 3% of all cats are infected with FeLV

approximately 2 to 3% of all cats are infected with FeLV

http://www.facebook.com/notes/i-love-cats/fyi-feline-leukemia-virus/1442...

MuLV & FeLV : closely related gammaretroviruses

[1]

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus
www.vet.cornell.edu/fhc/brochures/felv.html

[2]

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV)
and
murine leukemia virus (MuLV)
are
closely related gammaretroviruses

ukpmc.ac.uk › Journal List › J Virol › v.81(13); Jul 2007

[3]

MuLV-related retroviruses such as ...
feline leukemia virus (FeLV)

www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/088922299311484

[4]

closely related MuLV and FeLV
www.ag.uidaho.edu/mmbb/kgustin/mmbb471571/Papers/Burmeister.pdf

[5]

Feline leukemia virus,
like the closely related MuLV
books.google.com/books?isbn=0120224526...

[6]

MuLV ...
Its chemical structure is very similar to that of FeLV.
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4406885.html

[7]

FeLV
can grow on the cells of other mammalian species
www.patentstorm.us/patents/4406885/description.html

[8]

Members of the MuLV/FeLV oncovirus group
www.hms.harvard.edu/.../Oxford-Physiology-Viral-Vector-discussion.pdf

[9]

type C retroviruses such as MuLV and FeLV
biomed.brown.edu/Courses/.../PERV_introduction.html

[10]

several murine leukemia viruses (MuLV)
www.science-connections.com/books/.../trends3/.../401-
A_Search_for.pdf

[11]

Gammaretroviruses
formerly known as oncoretroviruses
www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/bwp/245803en.pdf

[12]

FeLV is shed in the saliva, urine, faeces, milk and nasal secretions
of infected cats.
www.endellveterinarygroup.co.uk/download/felv.PDF

FeLV transmission : saliva, urine, feces and milk

FeLV transmission usually occurs via saliva during mutual grooming, although bites are an equally effective method of transfer (for review, see Hardy 1993). The virus is also present in urine and feces and can be transmitted from infected mothers to their young via milk (Pedersen et al. 1977).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=rv&part=A4818

FeLV : Lethargy

Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV)

What to Watch For :

# Secondary infections
# Anemia
# Difficulty swallowing or eating
# Weight Loss
# Difficulty breathing
# Eye problems
# Coughing
# Lethargy
# Poor wound healing

http://www.petplace.com/cats/feline-leukemia-virus-felv/page1.aspx

Approximately 0.5% of pet cats persistently infected with FeLV

Approximately 0.5% of pet cats are persistently infected with FeLV, ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feline_leukemia_virus

B Stubhaug - 2008
Several case definitions with varying criteria are used for CFS. The prevalence is 0.5 % in a general population
http://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/3221

The existence of three FeLV subgroups
www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=109800

Professor De Meirleir ... He described how there are three main sub-groups of the disease, ... CFS ...
www.prohealth.com/me-cfs/library/showarticle.cfm?id.

3 subgroups were identified according to severity. ... de Meirleir (Brussels) ...
www.co-cure.org/infocon1.htm

In the United States, the prevalence of FeLV infection is estimated to be 2-3% of the healthy ...
https://www.vetconnect.com.au/5min/data/05880589.htm

This follows an earlier claim that 1.7% (5/300) of healthy Japanese blood .... Prevalence of human gamma retrovirus XMRV ...
www.plosone.org/doi/pone.0008519

Overall, FeLV prevalence was 4.3%
www.bestfriends.org/archives/forums/020204feral_abstracts.htm

XMRV in 3 percent to 4 percent of blood samples ...
www.theoneclickgroup.co.uk/news.php?start=2940&end

What about the 3.7% of healthy people who have XMRV?
www.virology.ws/2009/10/15/xmrv-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome/

Approximately 0.5% of humans persistently infected with XMRV

Approximately 0.5% of humans persistently infected with XMRV causing CFS/ME

FeLV exists in four subtypes: A, B, C, and T

FeLV exists in four subtypes: A, B, C, and T [Anderson et al., 2000; Russell & Jarrett 1978].

The subtypes are defined by host cell spectrum; they are immunologically closely related.

The subtype A is ubiquitous and is involved in every infection.

Subtype B originates from recombination of FeLV A with enFeLV.

Subtype C is the result of mutations in the env gene, and

subtype T has a tropism for T lymphocytes.

http://www.abcd-vets.org/guidelines/feline_leukaemia_virus/chapter-1.asp

CFS/ME exists in three subgroups, found by Dr. Kenny De Meirleir

CFS/ME researcher Dr. Kenny De Meirleir looked at the impairments of the 2-5A synthetase/RNase L pathway in CFS/ME, and he found that there were three subgroups of disease severity

==============================================================================================

Literature :

==============================================================================================

Kenny De Meirleir looked at the pathways and found three subgroups:

Group 1: (15 to 20 percent)

· High levels of LMW RNase L and elastase, low levels of protein kinase (PKR) and uric acid, and low to normal levels of nitric oxide. Elevated levels of lymphocytes and proteins in the spinal fluid, increased pressure upon opening the lumbar puncture

· Chronic low-grade viral infection and inflammatory reaction in the brain. Many microorganisms are associated with this profile. Heavy metals, pesticides, and other triggers may also be involved. ~ 20 percent have low-grade Herpes Virus 6A (HHV6A)encephalitis. [cf Chia]
· Neurocognitive problems – confusion, impaired concentration and memory. Fatigue originates in the brain. Pain is not prominent. Some similarities to (MS).

Group 2: (10 to 15 percent)

· Very high levels of LMW RNase L and elastase, high protein kinase activity, severely low natural killer cell activity, and very low serum uric acid levels.

· Severely ill - bacterial infections originating from animals such as pets, rodents, ticks, etc.

· Severe bowel problems. 70 % of immune cells are in the digestive tract. Leaky gut syndrome, increase in gut permeability

- foreign proteins enter the blood and tissues and inflammation results. Tests for 12 pathogenic gut bacteria.

Group 3: (60 to 70 percent)

· Majority of ME/CFS patients in this group. Profile similar to Group 2, but not as severe. Generalized pain originating from dysfunction in the pain processing areas of the brain and CNS is a prominent feature. GI infections with bacteria in the blood.

http://www.sheffieldmegroup.co.uk/reports/conf2007.pdf

==============================================================================================

Does XMRV exist in three subtypes ?

Does XMRV exist in three subtypes ?

FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus), MuLV (Murine Leukemia Virus) , and
XMRV (Xenotropic MuLV-Related Virus) are closely related gammaretroviruses.

FeLV was discovered in 1964, XMRV in 2006.

FeLV was first thought to exist in three subtypes. But now it is known that FeLV exists in four subtypes, A, B, C, and T.

Before the discovery of XMRV, and its link to CFS/ME, Kenny De Meirleir looked at the impairments of the RNase L pathway in CFS, and he found three subgroups in CFS/ME.

FeLV has a prevalence of 0,5% in cats, and CFS/ME has a prevalence of 0,5% in humans.

FeLV exists in four subtypes. CFS/ME exists in three subgroups.

Therefore XMRV may very well exist in three subtypes as well, similarly to what was found in FeLV.

LITERATURE :

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/complementary-medicine/201001/xmrv-c...

Seven genomic subtypes of CFS/ME - (Kerr 2008)

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Seven (7) genomic subtypes of CFS/ME (Kerr 2008)

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(7) Clinical features & (7) Subtypes (Kerr 2008)

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[1]

neurocognitive 7, neurological 7, cognitive 1, 4

[2]

sleep 1, 7

[3]

pain 7, 2, postexertional 6

[4]

infectious 7

[5]

musculoskeletal 7, 1, 2, 5

[6]

gastrointestinal 7, 5

[7]

anxiety/depression 7, 1, 2
most severe 7, 1, 2

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

neurocognitive subtype 7
neurological subtype 7
cognitive subtype 1
cognitive subtype 4

sleep subtype 1
sleep subtype 7

pain subtype 7
pain subtype 2
postexertional subtype 6

infectious subtype 7

musculoskeletal subtype 7
musculoskeletal subtype 1
musculoskeletal subtype 2
musculoskeletal subtype 5

gastrointestinal subtype 7
gastrointestinal subtype 5

anxiety/depression subtype 7 most severe
anxiety/depression subtype 1 most severe
anxiety/depression subtype 2 most severe

[[mild subtype 3]]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Literature :

Seven genomic subtypes of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a detailed analysis of gene networks and clinical phenotypes.

[Kerr JR - 2008]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18057078

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XMRV - Gammaretrovirus - Molecular biology

Gammaretrovirus - Molecular biology

XMRV: Human, primates.

http://www.expasy.ch/viralzone/all_by_species/67.html

FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans

FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans
FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans
FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans
FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans
FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans
FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans
FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans
FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans

==========================================
FeLV Symptoms in Cats : Extremely Diverse
==========================================

mild symptoms of fever
a general malaise
poor appetite
weight loss
anemia
diarrhea
constipation
“not doing well”
Swollen lymph nodes
Grooming changes
Weakness
Lethargy
Weight loss
Diarrhea
Loss of appetite
Breathing difficulties
weight loss
decreased appetite
lethargy
lymphoma
recurring illnesses
the inability to get over an illness
lethargy
inappetence
lethargy
weight loss
A reduced appetite
neutropenia
lethargy
pain
weight loss
anorexia
Pain
Anorexia
Weight loss
Nausea
Lethargy
Fever
poor appetite
lethargy
swollen glands (lymph nodes) in the neck
fever
lethargy
poor appetite
weight loss
anemia
diarrhea
constipation
oncogenesis
clinical signs such as lethargy from anemia
lethargic
persistent fevers
diarrhea
just not “act right”
lethargic
emaciated
oncogenic retrovirus
lethargy
transient vomiting
diarrhea
fever
weight loss
lethargy
enlarged lymphatic nodes
oncornavirus
onco=oncogenic
cancer producing
Stage III - FeLV
lethargy (listlessness)
mild fever
slight lethargy
swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy)
fever
weight loss
lymphadenopathy
lethargy
gingivitis
diarrhea
gradual health degeneration
weight loss
lethargy
depression
a disease that impairs the cat's immune system
Anemia
Lethargy
Weight loss
Enlarged lymph nodes
much misunderstood
fever
lethargy
poor appetite
weight loss
a variety of symptoms
lethargy
pain
FeLV-positive cats
depression
lethargy
anorexia
weight loss
vomiting
various types of cancer
vomiting
diarrhea
weight loss
decreased appetite
lethargy
anemia
FeLV is extremely contagious
transmitted by saliva and nasal discharge
lethargy
diarrhea
other infections
fever
lethargy
other systemic diseases
infectious peritonitis
generally unwell
lethargic
feverish
off their food
Lack of appetite
lethargy
listlessness
vomiting
fever
abdominal distention
fever
lethargy
weight loss
breathing problems
anaemia
neurological signs
firm swellings of the lymph nodes
Fever
poor appetite
lethargy
swollen glands (lymph nodes) in the neck
Lethargy
decreased appetite
dehydration
weight loss
vomiting
signs of FeLV infection
may be vague and non-specific
weight loss
lethargy
inappetence
abortions
stillbirths
lethargy
loss of appetite
weight loss
Immunodeficiency in Cats
nonregenerative anemia
Gastrointestinal Disease
FeLV-caused cancers of the stomach or intestines
FeLV regenerative anemia
FeLV induced nonregenerative anemia
Only about 15% => regenerative anemias
nonregenerative anemia
erythropoietic depression
Cats with non-regenerative anemia can't replace lost red blood cells with new ones.
afflicted with secondary FeLV effects
miscarriages
upper respiratory diseases
reproductive problems
miscarriages
weak or dying kittens
seizures
behavior changes
eye conditions
miscarriage of kittens
FeLV-induced skin conditions
Thrombocytopenia (low platelets)
granulocytopenia (low neutrophils)
increased attraction of white blood cells (neutrophils, ...)
cats with persistent FeLV infection
Suppression of ... neutrophil function
stage III or IV of FeLV

-------------

LITERATURE :

--------------

FeLV is one of the most important virus diseases of the domestic cat and produces a ... In most cases cats will show a general malaise (lethargy) ...

www.endellveterinarygroup.co.uk/download/felv.PDF

---

Symptoms of FeLV. Clinical signs are extremely diverse but include fever, lethargy, poor appetite, weight loss, anemia, jaundice, diarrhea or constipation, ...

www.thecatsite.com/.../87/FeLV-Feline-Leukemia-Virus.html

---

diagnosis and management of FIV or FeLV infection.

... Lethargy (“not doing well”). ____ Swollen lymph nodes. ____ Grooming changes ...

www.idexx.com/pubwebresources/pdf/en.../fiv-felv-observation-form.pdf

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Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV)

Clinical signs of infection include inappetence, lethargy, weight loss, ...

www.pfizeranimalhealth.com.au/.../feline-leukaemia-virus-felv.aspx

---

Kittens can pick up FeLV infections from their mothers ... A reduced appetite and lethargy are included in both as initial symptoms. ...

www.iacuc.arizona.edu/training/cats/diseases.html

---

Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared ...
S Rao - 2005

There was significantly increased grade 3/4 neutropenia with FELV .... symptoms including lethargy, pain, weight loss and anorexia (Table 3). ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2362051/

---

Table 3 - FELV
Pain
Anorexia
Weight loss
Nausea
Lethargy

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2362051/table/tbl2/

---

Epidemiology of Feline Leukaemia and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus ...
More than half of the patients positive for FeLV were lethargic. (59.4 %) and emaciated (61.5 %) when presented to the clinic. Infections of the digestive ...

doi.wiley.com/10.1046/j.1439-0450.1999.00302.x

---

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus

K de Mari - 2004

FeLV infects all hematopoietic cells in bone marrow and .....

signs consisted of lethargy, transient vomiting, and diarrhea ...

www.vmf.uni-leipzig.de/ik/.../SS07-1-13-Interferon-omega_FeLV.pdf

---

The feline leukemia virus disease (FeLV) is a fatal condition in cats. Symptoms of the FeLV include fever, weight loss, lethargy, enlarged lymphatic nodes, ...

www.vetinfo.com/causes-weight-loss-cats.html

---

FeLV is classified as an oncornavirus (onco=oncogenic or cancer producing, ..... not eating Stage III Moderate signs of disease (depression, lethargy, ...

www.patentstorm.us/patents/5705162/description.html

---

feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) ...

lethargy (listlessness) ...

www.ema.europa.eu/vetdocs/PDFs/EPAR/PurevaxFeLV/026600en1.pdf

---

FeLV and FIV cause many similar presenting clinical signs, such as fever, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, lethargy, gingivitis, and diarrhea. ...

books.google.com/books?isbn=0683306928...

---

Dan Rice - 1995 - Pets - 94 pages
Often, the only outwardly visible symptoms are gradual health degeneration, weight loss, lethargy, and depression. FeLV can be contracted through bite ...

books.google.com/books?isbn=0812092430...

---

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a disease that impairs the cat's immune system and causes ...

Anemia; Lethargy; Weight loss; Abscesses; Enlarged lymph nodes ...

www.petmd.com/cat/conditions/viral/c_ct_feline_leukemia

---

FeLV is one of the fairly common cat viruses, that is much misunderstood. ... Clinical signs can include fever, lethargy, poor appetite and weight loss. ...

www.v63.net/catsanctuary/felv.html

---

34.6% vs FELV 40%). Symptom resolution was achieved with both regimens ranging from 20 to 92% for a variety of symptoms including lethargy, pain, ...

www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v92/n9/pdf/6602576a.pdf

---

Lesley G. King - 2004 - Medical - 665 pages

In contrast, FeLV-positive cats tend to be much younger at the time of diagnosis ... depression, lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, vomiting ...

books.google.com/books?isbn=0721687067...

---

FeLV suppresses the immune system and results in various types of cancer and ... vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, decreased appetite, lethargy, anemia,

...
www.healthgene.com/vdl/leukemia.asp

---

FeLV is extremely contagious, and can be transmitted by saliva and nasal discharge ... affected cats may suffer from lethargy, diarrhea and other infections ...

www.professorshouse.com › Pets › Cats › Articles

---

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is one of the most common and destructive of all cat ... fever; lethargy; and other systemic diseases (infectious peritonitis, ...

www.cpvh.com › Articles

---

Cats may appear generally unwell eg lethargic, feverish and off their food. ...

www.pethealthinfo.org.uk/cats/health_leukaemia.html

---

Cat Clinic: Health Information - Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV)

Sometimes the signs of FeLV infection may be vague and non-specific, such as weight loss, lethargy and inappetence. If there are abortions or stillbirths ...

www.catdoctor.com.au/health_info/health_info_felv.html

---

Additional Info on the Six Stages of FeLV infection...

Following infection, FeLV has a specific pattern or replication that ...

STAGE III Days 3 - 12. Replication: Systemic lymphoid centers ...

www.mail-archive.com/felvtalk@felineleukemia.org/msg01189.html

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nonregenerative anemia - Disease & Conditions

For instance, a cat with FeLV infection can have nonregenerative anemia alone .... especially when the patient has concurrent gastrointestinal or CNS signs. ...

https://www.vetconnect.com.au/5min/data/01960197.htm

---

Retrovirus biology and human disease - Google Books Result

Robert C. Gallo, Flossie Wong-Staal - 1990 - Medical - 409 pages

FeLV regenerative anemia, erythroblastosis, is not as common a disease entity ... Only about 15% of FeLV-infected anemic pet cats have regenerative anemias ...

books.google.com/books?isbn=082477874X...

---

FeLV induced nonregenerative anemia ...

www.docstoc.com/.../Feline-Leukemia-Virus-FeLV

---

The feline patient - Google Books Result

Gary D. Norsworthy, Mitchell Crystal, Sharon ... -

2007 - Medical - 776 pages

FeLV Antigen Test: In the 1980s it was reported that about half of all cats ... Their presence, coupled with a regenerative anemia, is justification for a ...

books.google.com/books?isbn=0781762685...

---
How to Treat Non-Regenerative Anemia in Cats | eHow.com

Cats with non-regenerative anemia can't replace lost red blood cells with new ones. ... leukemia virus (FeLV) as the cause of his non-regenerative anemia.

...
www.ehow.com/how_5669441_treat-non_regenerative-anemia-cats.html

---

Preventing Feline Leukemia - Orthomolecular Specialties – New ...

Many of the felines were afflicted with secondary FeLV effects such as barren queens, miscarriages, fetal resorption, and upper respiratory diseases. ...

www.belfield.com/pet_health_art2.php

---

reproductive problems (miscarriages and weak or dying kittens: fading kitten ... cats tested for FelV then get them vaccinated if they test negative for the ...

guardianangelcathaveninc.org/rich_text_1.html

---

Leukemia Virus (Feline) | Diagnose Dog & Cat Health Problems, Pet ...

Feline leukemia (FeLV) is a viral disease of domestic cats caused by a retrovirus ... seizures, behavior changes, eye conditions and miscarriage of kittens. ...

www.petside.com/health/petvet/leukemia-virus-feline.php

---
Feline Leukemia Virus FELV

The prevalence of + Felv cats has been decreasing since the mid 1980's* ... Thrombocytopenia (low platelets) granulocytopenia (low neutrophils) ...

microvet.arizona.edu/courses/vsc406/Feline_Leukemia_Virus.ppt

---

The Retroviridae - Google Books Result

Jay A. Levy - 1993 - Medical - 458 pages

Neutrophils and neutrophil progenitors are always infected in cats with persistent FeLV infection (Figs. 4B, 6B) (Hardy et al, 1973b). ...

books.google.com/books?isbn=0306443694...

---

Prompted by the outbreak of an immunodeficiency-like state within a ...

by MANN HANLON - 1993 - Cited by 8 ...

Suppression of in vitro neutrophil function by feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and purified FeLV-pl5E. J. Gen. Virol. 68:507-513. ...

www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/vim.1993.6.119

Loss of Neutrophil and Natural Killer Cell Function Following Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Viral Immunology. Summer 1993, 6(2): 119-124.
Published in Volume: 6 Issue 2: March 13, 2009

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V Svobodová - 1998 - Cited by 13

Positive for FeLV or FIV were 21 and 12 animals, respectively. In 20 of these cats stage III or IV of FeLV (FIV) had developed

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304401798002015

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FeLV to be set as an example for vaccination against XMRV

Vaccination against FeLV in cats has been shown to be successful, and should now be set as the perfect example for vaccination against XMRV !

FeLV needs to be set as an example for XMRV.

Vaccination with a canarypox virus-vectored recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine in cats has been successful.

Vaccination with a canarypox virus-vectored recombinant XMRV vaccine in humans, protecting against CFS/ME and prostate cancer : that is what we are looking forward to.

FeLV is a very close cousin of XMRV. FeLV is to cats, what XMRV is to humans. FeLV and XMRV are MuLV-related gammaretroviruses with oncogenic properties (cancer-producing properties).

==========
Literature
==========

---

a canarypox virus-vectored recombinant feline leukemia virus vaccine

a canarypox virus-vectored recombinant feline leukemia virus vaccine in cats

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16506935

---

vaccination with

a canarypox virus-vectored recombinant West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15719324

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17039448

---

Why can't a recombinant vaccine consisting of canarypox virus carrying an XMRV gag and env genes be created rapidly as was done for the FeLV gag and env genes (presently sold as Merial PUREVAX FeLV in the USA and Eurifel FeLV in Europe). This vaccine would be safe and not require an aluminum adjuvant to be effective in humans based on the existing demonstration of effectiveness in cats. [...]

http://voices.washingtonpost.com/checkup/2009/10/virus_linked_to_chronic...

---

GAMMARETROVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CANCER

A Semantic Introduction to LIDS and GRIDS Syndromes

=========================================================================================
An Introduction to LIDS and GRIDS Syndromes : Retrovirus-induced Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
=========================================================================================

Cats and Humans can, respectively, get FIV and HIV, which can lead to a chronic retroviral reactivation syndrome, called F-AIDS in cats (Feline AIDS, AIDS in cats) and AIDS in humans (Human AIDS, H-AIDS). AIDS is a Lentiretrovirus-induced Immune Deficiency Syndrome (LIDS). Lentiretrovirus-induced AIDS in humans is due to HIV-1.

Cats and Humans can, respectively, get FeLV and XMRV, which can lead to a chronic retroviral reactivation syndrome, which should be considered to be called GRIDS, Gamma-Retrovirus-induced Immune Deficiency Syndrome (GRIDS) : F-GRIDS in cats (Feline GRIDS, or GRIDS in cats), and GRIDS in humans (Human GRIDS, H-GRIDS).

Before CFS/ME had been linked to XMRV, CFS/ME has always been suspected to be an other kind of AIDS, which has turned out to be the case, because both AIDS and CFS/ME are Immune Deficiency Syndromes, and both AIDS and CFS/ME are Acquired by induction of a retroviral infection.

Lentiretrovirus-induced Immune Deficiency Syndromes : LIDS syndromes, also known as lentiretrovirus-induced AIDS syndromes :

- HIV in humans, leading to human AIDS (HAIDS)
- SIV in monkeys, leading to simian AIDS (SAIDS)
- FIV in cats, leading to feline AIDS (FAIDS)
- MIV in mice, leading to murine AIDS (MAIDS)

Gammaretrovirus-induced Immune Deficiency Syndromes : GRIDS syndromes, also known as gammaretrovirus-induced non-AIDS syndromes, or also known as gammaretrovirus-induced AIDS-like syndromes :

- XMRV in humans, leading to human GRIDS (Human GRIDS, H-GRIDS), also known as CFS/ME in humans, and henceforth, it should be considered to be commonly referred to as GRIDS, instead of CFS/ME.
- FeLV in cats, leading to feline GRIDS (Feline GRIDS, F-GRIDS)
- MuLV in mice, leading to murine GRIDS (Murine GRIDS, M-GRIDS)

============================================================================================
AIDS is a LIDS syndrome : AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a Lentiretrovirus-induced Immune Deficiency Syndrome, caused by the Lentiretrovirus HIV-1.
============================================================================================

CFS/ME is a GRIDS syndrome : Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis is a Gammaretrovirus-induced Immune Deficiency Syndrome, caused by the Gammaretrovirus XMRV.

============================================================================================

After infection with HIV-1, infected individuals may develop AIDS.

After infection with XMRV, infected individuals may develop GRIDS (also known as CFS/ME).

============================================================================================

======
Literature
======

Lentivirus-induced immune dysregulation - Elsevier

MB Tompkins - 2008

lentivirus-induced AIDS

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0165242708000159

===

MuLV-related retroviruses such as gibbon ape leukemia ....
highly conserved in hominoids, Old World monkeys, and New ...

www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/088922299311484

===

murine retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome

RT Gazzinelli - 1992

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC257477/

===

Interactions between murine AIDS (MAIDS) and toxoplasmosis in ...

C Lacroix - 1994

a murine retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1534418/

===

... scientific studies showing that retroviruses can reactivate latent viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and HHV6-A.

---

retroviruses can reactivate ...

www.usnews.com/health/family-health/...a.../comments/

===

retroviruses can reactivate ...

MJ Goddard - 2000

jcp.bmjjournals.com/content/53/1/44.full

===

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)

BE Beer - 1999

As observed with other African monkeys naturally infected with SIV, this monkey was apparently healthy, and signs of immunodeficiency, such as weight loss, ...

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC104300/

===

simian AIDS (SAIDS)

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simian_immunodeficiency_virus

===

human AIDS

generalmedicine.suite101.com

===

HIV/AIDS (HAIDS)

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1626879

===

Non-AIDS Related Conditions

AG Pacheco - 2008

www.plosone.org/.../info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001531

===

Naturally acquired simian retrovirus infections in central African hunters.

By - Dr Nathan D Wolfe ScD, William M Switzer MPH, Jean K Carr PhD, ...

www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/.../PIIS0140-6736(04)15787-5

===

by A Cara - 1995 - Cited by 41

and lentiretroviruses, ... play some role in the replication of lentiretroviruses such as HIV-1. ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0042682285711488

===

HIV-1 is to AIDS, what XMRV is to CFS/ME

HIV-1 is to AIDS, what XMRV is to XMRV-induced long-term disease (CFS/ME) in humans.
FIV is to F-AIDS, what FeLV is to FeLV-induced long-term disease in cats.
MIV is to M-AIDS, what MuLV is to MuLV-induced long-term disease in mice.

Heaven is to Hell, what M-A1AT is to Z-A1AT

Z-A1AT is to DISEASE, what M-A1AT is to HEALTH
Z-A1AT is to DISEASE, what M-A1AT is to HEALTH
Z-A1AT is to DISEASE, what M-A1AT is to HEALTH
Z-A1AT is to DISEASE, what M-A1AT is to HEALTH

Heaven is to Hell, what M-A1AT is to Z-A1AT
Heaven is to Hell, what M-A1AT is to Z-A1AT
Heaven is to Hell, what M-A1AT is to Z-A1AT
Heaven is to Hell, what M-A1AT is to Z-A1AT

Z-A1AT is an important overlooked co-factor in the cause of AIDS

Z-A1AT is an important overlooked co-factor in the cause of CFS/ME

M-A1AT is a known important co-factor in the inhibition of AIDS

[1] Learn about Z-A1AT & ER stress :

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2121/8/30

[2] Learn about ER Stress & Retrovirus-Induced Neurodegeneration & Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) :

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/77/23/12617

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/23/12617

[3] Learn about : M-A1AT & HIV-1
http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/1/115

Co-existence of RNase L, SERPINA1 and HFE gene mutations

====================================================================================================
Co-existence of RNase L, SERPINA1 and HFE gene mutations may trigger XMRV-induced CFS/ME
====================================================================================================

XMRV infection and RNase L gene mutations
XMRV infection and SERPINA1 gene mutations
XMRV infection and HFE gene mutations

Especially :

Co-existence of both R462Q and Z-A1AT, and
Co-existence of both Z-A1AT and C282Y.

Heterozygous co-existence of R462Q, Z-A1AT, and C282Y gene mutations.

Heterozygous co-existence of :

- RNase L gene mutations
- SERPINA1 gene mutations
- HFE gene mutations

Esophageal-Gastric Distention & Hiatal Hernia in CFS/ME

======================================================================================

Scientific-Medical Literature-based Conclusion :

======================================================================================

XMRV-induced CFS/ME may cause :

- Brainstem Neurodegeneration,
- Esophageal-Gastric Distention, and
- Hiatal Hernia,

There seems to be an interrelationship between each of the three XMRV-induced phenomena.

======================================================================================

Literature

======================================================================================

---

chronic hiatal hernia ... presumably initiated by inflammation ...

www.chestjournal.org/content/134/4/872.short

---

Hiatal Hernia => image-illustration

http://images.medicinenet.com/images/illustrations/stomach_diagram.jpg

---

Hiatal Hernia

www.diagnose-me.com/faq-c.html

---

Hiatal Hernia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Hiatal Hernia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Hiatal Hernia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

http://www.cfs-info.com/joomla/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id...

---

Chronic Abdominal Distention
Chronic Abdominal Distention
Chronic Abdominal Distention

Hiatal Hernia, GERD, and Chronic Abdominal Distention

http://www.medhelp.org/posts/Gastroenterology/Hiatal-Hernia--GERD--and-C...

---

esophageal distention
esophageal distention
esophageal distention

distention of the esophagus
distention of the esophagus
distention of the esophagus

Pain due to esophageal distention

CA Flood - 1963

The pain response to distention of the esophagus was studied ... in a series of patients with symptomatic hiatal hernia.

www.springerlink.com/index/K24WH2270P521353.pdf

---

transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation
transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation
transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

gastric distention
gastric distention
gastric distention

hiatal hernia
hiatal hernia
hiatal hernia

Kahrilas PJ - 2000

Increased frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation induced by gastric distention in reflux patients with hiatal hernia.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10734020

---

Effects of brain stem cholecystokinin-8s on gastric tone and ...

GM Holmes - 2009

Gastric relaxation evoked by distension of the esophageal balloon was ...

ajpgi.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/296/3/G621

---

Reflex interaction of pharynx, esophagus, and airways : GI ...

R Shaker - 2006

esophageal distention-induced gastric relaxation

www.nature.com

---

At the distal end of the esophagus is the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), ...

www.emergencymedicaled.com/214Gastric%20Distention.htm

---

BK Medda - 2005

esophageal distension ... Brainstem pathways responsible for oesophageal control of gastric ...

linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306452205007669

---

Gastric distention, particularly just below the cardia, is the strongest ... gastric cardia, pharynx and esophageal body are integrated in brain stem nuclei ...

www.hon.ch/OESO/books/Vol_5_Eso_Junction/.../art093.html

---

Functional neuroimaging of gastric distention

E Stephan - 2003

Functional Neuroimaging of Gastric Distention. ...

The activation evident in the brain stem during inflation ...

www.springerlink.com/index/3202K694V25TV15N.pdf

---

... mice of the encephalopathy associated with ...

PM Hoffman - 1987

... MuLV-infected mice recipient mice showed mild spongiform lesions in the gray matter of the brain stem, ...

www.jstor.org/stable/29500

---

Viral load and its relationship to quinolinic acid, ...

RM Nagra - 1994

inflammatory spongiform change predominantly involving brainstem and spinal cord. Two molecularly cloned strains of MuLV, ts-1, ...

www.springerlink.com/index/98635666J28172T7.pdf

---

Xenotropic MuLV-related virus (XMRV) ...

brain-stem-cancer.dyndns.tv/law-case-leukemia.asp

---

Brainstem perfusion is impaired in chronic fatigue syndrome.

DC Costa - 1995

We then tested whether perfusion to the brainstem in ME/CFS patients differs from that in normals, patients with major depression, and others with epilepsy. ...

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8542261

---

Originally published in Science Express on 8 October 2009

Science 23 October 2009:

Vol. 326. no. 5952, pp. 585 - 589

Detection of an Infectious Retrovirus, XMRV, in Blood Cells of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Vincent C. Lombardi
Francis W. Ruscetti
Jaydip Das Gupta
Max A. Pfost
Kathryn S. Hagen
Daniel L. Peterson
Sandra K. Ruscetti
Rachel K. Bagni
Cari Petrow-Sadowski
Bert Gold
Michael Dean
Robert H. Silverman
Judy A. Mikovits

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1179052

---

Typically a FeLV positive cat becomes a “sickly” cat,

==========================================================================================================

Literature :

==========================================================================================================

Once a cat becomes infected with FeLV there may be no clinical symptoms for many years. The virus eventually causes the cat’s immune system to stop functioning correctly. Once the immune system is compromised, the cat becomes susceptible to a wide variety of illnesses. Typically a FeLV positive cat becomes a “sickly” cat, always suffering from some illness and taking longer than normal to recover from these illnesses. Some of the more common conditions FeLV positive cats suffer from are :

• Gastrointestinal disease
• Neurological disease
• Enlarged lymph nodes
• Immune mediated disease
• Immune deficiency diseases
• Anaemia
• Weight loss
• Lethargy
• Cancer

http://www.aucklandvetservices.co.nz/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Wo2v6RrT%...

==========================================================================================================

Neutralising antibodies protecting against permanent infection

Neutralising antibodies protecting against permanent infection in a majority of cats infected with FeLV, but not in a minority.

==================================================================================================

Literature

==================================================================================================

Weijer K. 1987

FeLV is transmitted among cats by contagion. The main sources of infection are persistantly infected FeLV carrier cats which continuously excrete virus from the mouth and in other secretions. The majority of cats infected with FeLV will produce neutralising antibodies. Cats which are unable to do so, will become permanently infected. The prognosis is bad in these cats: 90 per cent will die within five years.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3039686

==================================================================================================

Immunosuppressed might have a higher risk of FeLV infection

... more work with more sensitive techniques must be done before it can be concluded that FeLV does not infect man.

Immunosuppressed individuals ... might well have a higher risk of FeLV infection than healthy adults.

===================================================================================================

[CANCER RESEARCH 36, 582-588, February 1976]

Biology of Feline Leukemia Virus in the Natural Environment

William D. Hardy, Jr.

[...]

These results indicate that FeLV did not infect those individuals tested, however, more work with more sensitive techniques must be done before it can be concluded that FeLV does not infect man. Immunosuppressed individuals and fetuses, which are more susceptible to viral infections than are adults, might well have a higher risk of FeLV infection than healthy adults.

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/36/2_Part_2/582.pdf

===================================================================================================

Reduced Numbers of Neutrophils & Anemia caused by FeLV

Feline Leukemia Virus and Related Diseases: Introduction

(Feline lymphoma and leukemia, Lymphosarcoma)

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/57000.htm

---

Numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of affected cats may be reduced, and those cells that are present may be dysfunctional.

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/57000.htm

---

The anemia caused by FeLV is usually nonregenerative and normochromic. There is frequently an idiosyncratic macrocytosis. About 10% of FeLV-related anemias are hemolytic and regenerative.

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/57000.htm

---

Normochromic is a form of anemia in which the concentration of haemoglobin in the red blood cells is within the standard range. ...

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normochromic_anemia

---

normochromic anemia : anemia in which the hemoglobin content of the red cells as measured by the MCHC is in the normal range.

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/normochromic+anemia

---

Vaccines against FeLV have been available since 1985.

---

The Path Well Traveled: Using Mammalian Retroviruses to Guide Research on XMRV

Mol Interv

February 2010

http://molinterv.aspetjournals.org/content/10/1/20.citation

=> Vaccines against FeLV have been commercially available for twenty years

---

Since 1985, several FeLV vaccines have been licensed in the US.
purevax.us.merial.com/media/feline_leukemia.pdf

---

SERPINA1 gene variants in the general population

==============================================================================================

SERPINA1 gene variants in individuals from the general population with reduced alpha1-antitrypsin concentrations.

Clin Chem. 2008 Aug;54(8):1331-8.

Epub 2008 May 29.

https://www.zora.uzh.ch/5388/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18515255

==============================================================================================

=> an exhaustive investigation of SERPINA1 gene variants in individuals from the general population with a moderately reduced serum AAT concentration

=> SERPINA1 gene variants in individuals from the general population with reduced alpha1-antitrypsin concentrations.

=> 64% carried the normal PI*MM genotype, whereas 36% carried at least 1 SERPINA1 deficiency variant.

=> This analysis provided a detailed molecular definition of intermediate AATD, which would be helpful in the diagnostic setting.

==============================================================================================

==============================================================================================

M-A1AT => normal variant

Z-A1AT => pathogenic variant

==============================================================================================

PI*MM => normal variant + normal variant

PI*MZ => normal variant + pathogenic variant

PI*ZZ => pathogenic variant + pathogenic variant

==============================================================================================

PI*MM = M-A1AT + M-A1AT

PI*MZ = M-A1AT + Z-A1AT

PI*ZZ = Z-A1AT + Z-A1AT

==============================================================================================

PI*MZ = heterozygosity for the PI Z allele

PI*ZZ = homozygosity for the PI Z allele

==============================================================================================

PI*MZ = heterozygous for the PI Z allele

PI*ZZ = homozygous for the PI Z allele

==============================================================================================

PI*MZ = heterozygote for the PI Z allele

PI*ZZ = homozygote for the PI Z allele

==============================================================================================

The pathogenic importance of the uncommon variants of the Pi system is unknown at present.

[Guido Massi - 1982]

www.springerlink.com/index/EM0707210182041M.pdf

http://www.springerlink.com/content/em0707210182041m/

==============================================================================================

What is needed now is an exhaustive investigation of SERPINA1 gene variants in individuals diagnosed with XMRV-induced CFS/ME and in individuals diagnosed with HIV-1-induced AIDS in order to establish the exact interrelationship between SERPINA1 gene variants and the pathogenesis of retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndromes.

==============================================================================================

Exhaustive investigation of the SERPINA1 gene in CFS/ME

What is needed now is an exhaustive investigation of the SERPINA1 gene in individuals diagnosed with XMRV-induced CFS/ME and in individuals diagnosed with HIV-1-induced AIDS in order to establish the exact interrelationship between SERPINA1 gene variants and the pathogenesis of retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndromes.

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Jacob Teitelbaum, M.D., internist and author of From Fatigued to Fantastic!, researches treatments for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and fibromyalgia.

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