Believing in natural justice makes some people complacent, for they passively count on justice to happen on its own. People who believe we can create justice are more active, take-charge kinds of people, more ready to set aside their short-term self-interests and better able to stay motivated while working hard to satisfy long-term and less self-serving goals (Lipkus, 1991; Zuckerman & Gerbasi, 1977). Some of those who most actively pursue justice, not trusting it to happen on their own, feel a need to see it for themselves....
Asking “Why?” does not give victims solace. Answering it might. Searching for meaning can stress the searcher and worsen PTSD symptoms before that person comes out the other side. Finding meaning predicts better adjustment (Park, 2010). People who report posttraumatic growth (positive changes resulting from trauma) experience less depression and greater life satisfaction not by forgetting about the trauma but instead by dwelling on it in constructive ways. Numbing our feelings, refusing to acknowledge or think about bad things that have happened, all the dissociative tricks we play to protect ourselves instead of actively coping will predict more posttraumatic stress, not less (Ehlers, Mayou, & Bryant, 1998; Griffin, Resick, & Mechanic, 1997; Harvey, Bryant, & Dang, 1998). By feeling the negative emotions and recalling the unpleasant events, we might learn from them. Intrusive, unwanted ruminations that run ramshod over other thoughts can evolve into intentional contemplation. Such deliberation, in turn, may help a victim face the pain without drowning in it (Dekel, 2011; Helgeson, Reynolds, & Tomich, 2006; Triplett, Tedeschi, Cann, Calhoun, & Reeve, 2011).
“Why?” goes beyond seeking a direct cause. Meaning making, finding value in tragedy or forging our own means to make it have positive repercussions, helps many people cope and may be critical for posttraumatic growth. A shakeup of your worldview can mark the starting point for eventual achievements (Calhoun, Cann, & Tedeschi, 2010). “Meaning making is very personal and may involve religion, renewed appreciation for life, or public service” (Wortmann, 2009)....
The majority of people cope successfully with their traumas (Bonanno et al., 2011). Why some bounce back from adversity despite upbringing, environment, and great hardships (Wingo, Fani, Bradley, & Ressler, 2010), we don’t really know. Even though we can identify some factors correlated with resilience, the ability to adapt quickly to stress without lasting mental or physical ailments, we haven’t ferreted out the causal connections. Highly resilient individuals show greater morale, self-efficacy, self-reliance, perseverance, and purpose in life (Caltabiano & Caltabiano, 2006; Nygren, Alex, Jonsen, Gustafson, Norberg, & Lundman, 2005; Wagnild & Collins, 2009; Wagnild & Young, 1993). Psychologically resilient individuals rebound from dwelling on pain by summoning positive emotions (Ong, Zautra, & Reid, 2010; Zautra, Arewasikporn, & Davis, 2010). They invigorate themselves.
Social support helps—quality over quantity.
"No more hurting people. Peace"—Martin Richard, 8-year-old Boston victim.
The excerpt above comes from Batman and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight (Wiley & Sons, 2012), pages 46-47 and 50, with the comic book references edited out this time. Presented out of context, the omitted material seemed likely to distract from the point in this one instance.
We cannot do nearly enough to help and support the victims, their families, and everyone impacted by these and other crisis. That doesn't mean we shouldn't try. There's more than one way to run this marathon.
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