Body Image 1996

Has there been a change in levels of body satisfaction? Body image is sucha complex topic that the evidence is unclear. Now it's your turn to help set the record straight.

For as long as anyone's been counting—at least three decades—women have been at war with their bodies. Dissatisfied with their appearance and wanting to lose weight, they have often gone to extremes to do so, denying appetite altogether or, symbolizing the contradictions inherent in the effort, alternately bingeing and purging. Although medical rarities a generation ago, primarily affecting the wealthy, the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and especially bulimia nervosa have become commonplace today, drifting down the socioeconomic ladder.

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But the long-running war may have reached a turning point. This past fall, a team of Dartmouth psychologists observing Harvardstudents reported a slight downturn in disordered eating behaviors and an increase in self-acceptance of body weight and shape. Whether their findings mark the beginning of a true change in attitudes or a mere fluctuation is not yet clear. "Body dissatisfaction and desire to lose weight were still the norm for more than 70 percent of the women," the researchers stressed in the American Journal of Psychiatry. Moreover, other researchers elsewhere are reporting record levels of body dissatisfaction.

Body image is a complex and puzzling topic, one that has fascinated psychologists and neurologists for many years. It is a term that almost everyone seems to grasp but even experts do not really understand. It is concerned not only with external and objective attributes but also with subjective representations of physical appearance: beliefs, feelings, sensations, and perceptions about the body.

Most of the information on body image is based on clinical populations, women (and some men) with serious psychological disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa or people with physical deformities. However, everyone has a body image and it has strong emotional overtones based on our experiences in life. Our image of our body plays a major role in how we feel, what we do, whom we meet, whom we marry, and what career path we choose, even if its precise meaning and its role in mental well-being continue to elude psychologists.

Eating disorders are one manifestation of negative body image. They involve an intense preoccupation with fatness, leading to extreme attempts to control body weight. There is evidence that the epidemic increase in eating disorders since the 1960s is related to the intense social and cultural pressures on women to conform to a thin ideal of feminine attractiveness that is unnatural for most women. As many observers have noted, today's body image ideal is unprecedented, both in degree of thinness and extent of dissemination.

Research has shown that dieting to lose weight and fear of fatness are common in girls as young as nine, and these attitudes and behaviors escalate significantly during adolescence, particularly among those at the heavier end of the spectrum. The risk of developing an eating disorder is eight times higher among dieting 15-year-old girls than among non-dieting age-mates. In American culture, those exposed to more pressure to diet are at greater risk for eating disorders. This includes athletes in activities that emphasize leanness to enhance performance or appearance, notably women in gymnastics, figure skating, and ballet, and men in wrestling.

Not surprisingly, one of the keys to helping people overcome eating disorders is fostering the development of a positive body image. Unfortunately, this involves swimming up the cultural stream since the "thin is beautiful" message is ubiquitous. The media plays a huge role as a cultural gatekeeper, framing standards of beauty by the models they choose. There is also evidence that these standards promote insecurity among women (and, increasingly, men) regarding physical appearance. Studies of prime-time television indicate that programs are dominated by thin body types and that thinness is consistently associated with the portrayal of favorable personality traits.

However, one of the most interesting aspects of the psychology of appearance is that not all people succumb to the cultural stereotypes. The development of positive body image is an intriguing phenomenon and one in which we, as psychologists who have extensively studied eating disorders, are particularly interested. Given today's focus on an unusually thin body ideal widely pictured in the media, why don't all women in our culture have eating disorders?

In our studies documenting widespread body dissatisfaction, we have found a subgroup of women who actually feel satisfied with their appearance. Some are satisfied even though their body size deviates significantly from the widely pictured ideal. These women have achieved self-acceptance despite bombardment with cultural messages linking happiness and attractiveness with thinness.

In the study of Harvard students, fewer men and women were engaged in chronic dieting in 1992 versus 1982, and more of them were eating three meals a day. The women were also an average of five pounds heavier!

The findings suggest that a "new" idea may be gaining ground: it is time to be comfortable with one's body even if it does not conform to cultural body size ideals. Some people are naturally fatter, others naturally thinner. Perhaps the healthiest course is to accept yourself the way you are, rather than try to mold yourself into some narrowly defined ideal.

The Survey on Body Image 1996 grew out of our combined clinical and research experiences. But it reflects PTs long-running interest in body image issues. In 1972, Psychology Today first surveyed its readership on the subject, then again in 1985. Only you can tell us: Have the social advances of the 1990s made people more or less accepting of their personal appearance?

We are interested in learning how people respond to cultural messages about body size and shape. If you have maintained positive feelings about your appearance, what specific strategies have you used? What makes you feel good about your appearance? How does body image change with age, pregnancy, love relationships?

Your participation in the Psychology Today Survey on Body Image 1996 will provide an important benchmark on body image attitudes. The collective wisdom of PT readers may also yield insights that can help others end the war with their body

Please complete the accompanying questionnaire and return it with the label provided on page 63. The sooner you respond, the sooner we can provide the definitive report on Body Image 1996.

PHOTO (COLOR)

PSYCHOLOGY TODAY SURVEY 1996

Instructions: Please answer all of the following questions by checking (??? or x) the box that applies most accurately to you. Some questions warrant a more detailed written response. If you need more space, please enclose a separate sheet of paper with your answers (make sure they are numbered in accordance with the questions) and descriptions of your experiences.

Please cut out and use the label at the end of the questionnaire to return your survey. It will facilitate processing.

Part I: How Do You Feel about Your Body?

1. How important do you think physical attractiveness is in day-to-day social interaction for most people?

[ ] Very important

[ ] Moderately important

[ ] Slightly important

[ ] Almost irrelevant

[ ] Completely irrelevant

2. How self-conscious are you about your appearance?

[ ] Not at all self-conscious

[ ] A little self-conscious

[ ] Somewhat self-conscious

[ ] Quite self-conscious

[ ] Extreme]y self-conscious

3. How do you feel about these aspects of your appearance?

Legend for Chart:

A - Extremely Satisfied

B - Somewhat satisfied

C - Somewhat dissatisfied

D - Quite dissatisfied

E - Extremely dissatisfied

A B C D E

a. Height [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

b. Weight [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

c. Hips [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

d. Hands [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

e. Legs [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

f. Hair [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

g. Abdomen [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

h. Overall facial

attractiveness [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

i. Chest/breasts [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

j. Arms [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

k. Buttocks [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

l. Size of sex

organs [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

m. Muscle tone [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

n. Shoulders [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

o. Feet [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

4. When you look at your body in the mirror, how satisfied do you feel about what you see?

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

Part II: What Causes Negative Feelings about Your Body? 5. How important are the following in making you feel bad about your body?

Legend for Chart:

A - Very important

B - Moderately important

C - Slightly important

D - Almost irrelevant

E - Completely irrelevant

A B C D E

a. Someone rejecting you [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

b. Not getting regular exercise [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

c. Being in a bad mood about

something else [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

d. Being around someone who

is critical of you [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

e. Not living up to your family's

standards for "looks" [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

f. Negative sexual experiences [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

g. Eating fattening foods [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

h. Not feeling confident

in your abilities [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

i. Remembering being teased

when you were younger [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

j. A partner's opinion about

your appearance [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

k. Relationships not going well [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

l. Gaining weight [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

m. Looking at your face in

the mirror [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

n. Looking at your stomach in

the mirror [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

Women Only:

o. A certain time in your

menstrual cycle [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

p. Pregnancy [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

q. Water retention [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

Pick items above you feel most strongly about and tell us more. Use another sheet of paper if you need more space.

PART III: What Causes Positive Feelings about Your Body?

6. How important are the following in making you feel good about your body?

Legend for Chart:

A - Very important

B - Moderately important

C - Slightly important

D - Almost irrelevant

E - Completely irrelevant

A B C D E

a. Regular exercise [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

b. Losing weight [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

c. Compliments from others

on your appearance [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

d. Relationships with others

going well [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

e. Confidence in your abilities [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

f. Love from another person [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

g. Positive sexual experiences [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

h. Feeling effective as a person [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

i. Acceptance of your body the

way it is [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

j. Using cosmetic or personal

grooming products [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

k. Wearing flattering clothing [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

l. Feeling "thin" [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

m. Reading articles about

accepting your body [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

n. Practicing meditation [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

o. Eating low-fat foods [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

p. Receiving a massage [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

q. Practicing yoga [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

r. Plastic surgery [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

PART IV: What Shaped Your Body Image during Childhood or

Adolescence?

7. When you were growing up, how important were the following in

shaping your attitudes toward your body?

Legend for Chart:

A - Very important

B - Moderately important

C - Slightly important

D - Almost irrelevant

E - Completely irrelevant

A B C D E

a. Fashion magazine models [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

b. Movie or television celebrities [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

c. Sports figures [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

d. Your own participation

in sports [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

e. Career or professional

role models [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

f. Your mother's attitude

about your body [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

g. Your father's attitude

about your body [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

h. Positive relationships

with friends [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

i. Positive sexual experiences [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

j. Negative sexual experiences [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

k. Teasing by others [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

l. Personal feelings about

your weight [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

m. Turning your attention to

schoolwork [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

n. Experiencing sexual abuse [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

o. Experiencing physical abuse [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

p. Thinking about your

father's appearance [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

q. Thinking about your

mother's appearance [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

Part V: What about Efforts to Control or Lose Weight?

8. In the past year, which methods have you used to control weight or lose weight (and how often)?

Legend for Chart:

A - Never

B - Less than once month

C - About once a month

D - About once a week

E - Two or more times a week

a. Diet pills [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

b. Laxatives [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

c. Diuretics (water pills) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

d. Exercise for weight loss [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

e. Self-induced vomiting [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

f. Extreme caloric restriction

(less than 500 calories a day) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

g. Moderate caloric restriction [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

h. Change in types of foods eaten [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

9. Have you ever dieted to lose weight? (If not, skip to Question 14)

[ ] No [ ] Yes

10. How did you feel about your body the last time you were actively dieting?

[ ] Extremely satisfied

[ ] Quite satisfied

[ ] Somewhat satisfied

[ ] Somewhat dissatisfied (continued)

[ ] Quite dissatisfied

[ ] Extremely dissatisfied

11. How did you feel about your body three months after you topped dieting the last time?

[ ] Extremely satisfied

[ ] Quite satisfied

[ ] Somewhat satisfied

[ ] Somewhat dissatisfied

[ ] Quite dissatisfied

[ ] Extremely dissatisfied

12. Have you ever followed a liquid-formula diet to lose weight?

[ ] No [ ] Yes (If yes, which one?)

13. Have you ever followed a commercial weight-loss program to lose weight?

[ ] No [ ] Yes (If yes, which one?)

14. On average, how many calories do you think you consume each day?

[ ] I do not know

[ ] Less than 500 calories

[ ] 500-999 calories

[ ] 1000-1499 calories

[ ] 1500-1999 calories

[ ] 2000-2499 calories

[ ] 2500 calories or more

15. On average, how many calories do you try to consume each day?

[ ] I do not know

[ ] Less than 500 calories

[ ] 500-999 calories

[ ] 1000-1499 calories

[ ] 1500-1999 calories

[ ] 2000-2499 calories

[ ] 2500 calories or more

16. How would you describe the way you typically eat with regard to food?

[ ] Extremely overeat

[ ] Overeat

[ ] Eat just the right amount

[ ] Undereat

[ ] Extremely undereat

17. On average, in the past year how often have you exercised per week (including going on walks, bicycling, etc.)?

[ ] Never [ ] 1 time [ ] 2-3 times

[ ] 4-5 times [ ] 5-6 times [ ] 6-7 times

18. On average, how long do you exercise each time?

[ ] 1-9 minutes

[ ] 10-19 minutes

[ ] 20-29 minutes

[ ] 30-59 minutes

[ ] 1-2 hours

[ ] More than 2 hours

19. People exercise for many reasons, including general health and weight control. What percent of your exercise is aimed at controlling weight?

[ ] 0%

[ ] 1-24%

[ ] 25-49%

[ ] 50-74%

[ ] 75-99%

[ ] 100%

20. If I could weigh exactly what I want for the rest of my life, I would trade how many months/years of my life?

[ ] 1 month

[ ] 2-6 months

[ ] 6-12 months

[ ] 1-3 years

[ ] 3-5 years

[ ] More than 5 years

21. Do you smoke cigarettes to control your weight?

[ ] No [ ] Yes

22. Have you ever been diagnosed as having or been treated for an eating disorder?

[ ] No [ ] Yes

23. Do you have an eating disorder but have never received treatment?

[ ] No [ ] Yes

24. (Women only) Have you missed two or more menstrual periods within the last six months?

[ ] No [ ] Yes

25. Have you ever had plastic (cosmetic) surgery?

[ ] No [ ] Yes

(If yes, please describe the procedures)

Part VI: My "Look"

Many women and men aspire to a certain "image" or "look" and use makeup, clothes, exercise, and/or hairstyles to attain it. Examples of common looks include:

Women Only:

a. Classic beauty

b. Youthful sexual look

c. Mature sexual look

d. Natural, un-made-up appearance

e. Exotic

f. Feminine and soft

g. Tough, hard

h. Counterculture

i. Academic, intellectual

j. Older than age

k. Younger than age

l. Boyish "tomboy" look

m. Androgynous (equally feminine and masculine)

Men Only:

n. Rugged

o. V-shaped body

p. Youthful (continued)

q. Mature

r. GQ look

s. Athletic

t. Hard, tough

u. Counterculture

v. Academic, intellectual

w. Older than age

x. Younger than age

y. Feminine

z. Androgynous (equally masculine and feminine)

26. During adolescence, what "look" were you aspiring to attain? Place letter from above list here:

27. Currently, what "look" are you aspiring to attain? Place letter from above list here:

Part VII: The Effects of the Media on Your Body Image

Legend for Chart:

A - Always

B - Very often

C - Often

D - Rarely

E - Never

A B C D E

28. Do you compare yourself to

models in magazines? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

29. Do you carefully study the

shapes of models in magazines? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

30. Do you buy cosmetics or personal

grooming products because of

magazine models? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

31. Do very thin or muscular magazine

models make you feel insecure

about your weight? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

32. Do very thin or muscular magazine

models make you want to lose

weight to be like them? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

33. Do you feel angry or resentful at

magazine models because they are

so thin or muscular? [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

Legend for Chart:

A - Strongly agree

B - Moderately agree

C - Slightly agree

D - Moderately disagree

E - Strongly disagree

A B C D E F

34. I would like models

in magazines to be more

representative of the

range of body shapes. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

35. I would buy magazines

that contained some

attractive heavier models. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

36. I would buy magazines

that contained some

attractive shorter

models. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

37. I would rather accept my

weight than struggle to

control it. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

38. I believe that clothes look

better on thin models. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

39. Fat people should not

appear in magazines

because they set poor

examples for the public. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

Talk Television

We want to know what you think about the popular television talk shows like "Oprah," "Sally Jessy Raphael," "Ricki Lake," and "Geraldo." Generally, this type of TV talk show:

Legend for Chart:

A - Strongly agree

B - Moderately agree

C - Slightly agree

D - Moderately disagree

E - Strongly disagree

A B C D E F

40. Has educated the public

about eating disorders. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

41. Creates a more informed

and sensitive public. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

42. Enlightens the public about

emotional problems. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

43. Brings the views of

professionals to the

public. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

44. Exploits people with

emotional problems. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

45. Sensationalizes topics such

as sexual abuse. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

46. Exploits stereotypes of

women, men, and

minorities. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

47. Inflames hostility between

the sexes. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

48. Promotes copycat

emotional symptoms. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

49. Should be legally liable for

harming vulnerable guests. [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

50. On average, for how long each day is the television in your home turned on?

[ ] 0-10 minutes

[ ] 11-30 minutes

[ ] 31-59 minutes

[ ] 1-2 hours

[ ] 2-4 hours

[ ] more than 4 hours

Part VIII: Tell Us More about Yourself

51. I generally consider myself to be: (check as many as apply)

Legend for Chart:

A - Strongly agree

B - Moderately agree

C - Slightly agree

D - Moderately disagree

E - Strongly disagree

A B C D E F

a. An intellectual [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

b. Politically conservative [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

c. Assertive [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

d. Emotionally stable [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

e. Spiritually oriented [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

f. Athletic [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

g. Relationship oriented [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

h. Career oriented [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

i. A feminist [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

j. Traditional in values [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

k. Pro-choice (rather

thanpro-life) [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

l. A happy person [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

m. A strong believer in

astrology [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

52 What are the key issues of concern to you in the coming year?

Legend for Chart:

A - Very important

B - Moderately important

C - Slightly important

D - Almost irrelevant

E - Completely irrelevant

A B C D E

a. Improved relations between

the sexes [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

b. Occupational pressures [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

c. Romantic relationships [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

d.Lack of leisure time [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

e. Financial problems [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

f. Child rearing [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

g. Social policy issues [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

h. Balancing work and family [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

i. Social pressure to

look attractive [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

j. Spiritual issues [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

k. Legal issues [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

l. Gender equality [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

m. International conflicts [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

n. Dealing with illness [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

o. AIDS [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

p. Balancing the federal

budget [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

q. Other:

Personal Background

53. How old are you? ------ years

54. Are you

[ ] Female [ ] Male

55. How much do you weigh? ----- pounds

56. What is your height? ----- feet ----- inches

57. What is your desired weight? ------ pounds

58. What is your racial or ethnic background?

[ ] African American

[ ] Latino

[ ] Asian/Pacific Mander

[ ] Native American/Alaskan Native

[ ] Caucasian

[ ] Other:

59. What is the highest level of education you've completed?

[ ] Grade School

[ ] High School

[ ] Technical/some college

[ ] College

[ ] Graduate school

60. What is the total annual income of your household?

[ ] under $15,000

[ ] $15,000-$24,999

[ ] $25,000-$49,999

[ ] $50,000-$99,999

[ ] $100,000-$199,000

[ ] $200,000 or more

61. How satisfied are you with your occupation?

[ ] Extremely satisfied

[ ] Quite satisfied

[ ] Somewhat satisfied

[ ] Somewhat dissatisfied

[ ] Quite dissatisfied

[ ] Extremely dissatisfied

62. How satisfied are you with your ability to connect and be close with others?

[ ] Extremely satisfied

[ ] Quite satisfied

[ ] Somewhat satisfied

[ ] Somewhat dissatisfied

[ ] Quite dissatisfied

[ ] Extremely dissatisfied

63. What is your sexual orientation?

[ ] Homosexual [ ] Bisexual [ ] Heterosexual

64. Do you have health problems?

[] No [ ] Yes (If yes, please explain)

Tell Us More

Have you ever been able to overcome bad feelings about your body (examples: acne, weight problems, mastectomy, height)? If yes, please tell us how you did this. Feel free to use additional sheets of paper if you need more space.

This survey was designed to be completely anonymous; however, we would like to be able to contact some of you for more detailed answers. Please feel free to include your name, address, and phone number, if you wish.

Name:

Street address:

City, State, Zip code:

Phone: ( )

Please place your completed questionnaire, along with any additional written responses, in an envelope and return to:

David M. Garner, Ph.D.

Director, Eating Disorder Program

Central Behavioral Healthcare

7261 W. Central Ave.

Toledo, OH 43617-1100

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